India & Greece – A long, deep and ancient relationship – Macro Viewpoints
Sanskrut and Greek are the two oldest Indo-European languages. So, it is difficult to figure out when the relationship between India and Greece. The next year, Alexander fought a difficult battle against the Indian monarch Porus . marriage or an agreement for intermarriage between Indians and Greeks. Diplomatic relations between Greece and India were established in May The political climate in the relations between the two countries is excellent, with.
He then successfully resisted a three-year siege in the fortified city of Bactra modern Balkhbefore Antiochus finally decided to recognize the new ruler, and to offer one of his daughters to Euthydemus's son Demetrius around BC.
In the west, areas in north-eastern Iran may have been absorbed, possibly as far as into Parthiawhose ruler had been defeated by Antiochus the Great. These territories possibly are identical with the Bactrian satrapies of Tapuria and Traxiane. The Greek historian Strabo too writes that: Several statuettes and representations of Greek soldiers have been found north of the Tien Shanon the doorstep to China, and are today on display in the Xinjiang museum at Urumqi Boardman .
Greek influences on Chinese art have also been suggested HirthRostovtzeff. Designs with rosette flowers, geometric lines, and glass inlays, suggestive of Hellenistic influences,  can be found on some early Han dynasty bronze mirrors.
The practice of exporting Chinese metals, in particular iron, for trade is attested around that period. Kings Euthydemus, Euthydemus II, Agathocles and Pantaleon made these coin issues around BC and it has alternatively been suggested that a nickeliferous copper ore was the source from mines at Anarak.
When I asked the people how they had gotten such articles, they replied, "Our merchants go buy them in the markets of Shendu India. Burton Watson Upon his return, Zhang Qian informed the Chinese emperor Han Wudi of the level of sophistication of the urban civilizations of Ferghana, Bactria and Parthia, who became interested in developing commercial relationships with them: The Son of Heaven on hearing all this reasoned thus: Ferghana Dayuan and the possessions of Bactria Daxia and Parthia Anxi are large countries, full of rare things, with a population living in fixed abodes and given to occupations somewhat identical with those of the Chinese people, and placing great value on the rich produce of China — HanshuFormer Han History A number of Chinese envoys were then sent to Central Asia, triggering the development of the Silk Road from the end of the 2nd century BC.
The Khalsi rock edict of Ashokawhich mentions the Greek kings AntiochusPtolemyAntigonusMagas and Alexander by name, as recipients of his teachings.
The Indian emperor Chandraguptafounder of the Mauryan dynastyhad re-conquered northwestern India upon the death of Alexander the Great around BC. However, contacts were kept with his Greek neighbours in the Seleucid Empirea dynastic alliance or the recognition of intermarriage between Greeks and Indians were established described as an agreement on Epigamia in Ancient sourcesand several Greeks, such as the historian Megasthenesresided at the Mauryan court.
Subsequently, each Mauryan emperor had a Greek ambassador at his court. Chandragupta's grandson Ashoka converted to the Buddhist faith and became a great proselytizer in the line of the traditional Pali canon of Theravada Buddhism, directing his efforts towards the Indian and the Hellenistic worlds from around BC.
According to the Edicts of Ashokaset in stone, some of them written in Greek, he sent Buddhist emissaries to the Greek lands in Asia and as far as the Mediterranean. The edicts name each of the rulers of the Hellenistic world at the time. The conquest by Dharma has been won here, on the borders, and even six hundred yojanas 4, miles away, where the Greek king Antiochos rules, beyond there where the four kings named PtolemyAntigonosMagas and Alexander rule, likewise in the south among the Cholasthe Pandyasand as far as Tamraparni.Who Are Pakistan's Descendants Of Alexander The Great?
Dhammika Some of the Greek populations that had remained in northwestern India apparently converted to Buddhism: Here in the king's domain among the Greeks, the Kambojasthe Nabhakas, the Nabhapamkits, the Bhojas, the Pitinikas, the Andhras and the Palidas, everywhere people are following Beloved-of-the-Gods' instructions in Dharma. Dhammika Furthermore, according to Pali sources, some of Ashoka's emissaries were Greek Buddhist monks, indicating close religious exchanges between the two cultures: When the thera elder Moggaliputta, the illuminator of the religion of the Conqueror Ashokahad brought the third council to an end… he sent forth theras, one here and one there: In the 2nd century AD, the Christian dogmatist Clement of Alexandria recognized the existence of Buddhist Sramanas among the Bactrians "Bactrians" meaning "Oriental Greeks" in that periodand even their influence on Greek thought: Thus philosophy, a thing of the highest utility, flourished in antiquity among the barbarians, shedding its light over the nations.
And afterwards it came to Greece. The Indian gymnosophists are also in the number, and the other barbarian philosophers.
Legacy of the Indo-Greeks - Wikipedia
Buddhist sources, such as the Ashokavadanamention that Pushyamitra was hostile towards Buddhists and allegedly persecuted the Buddhist faith. A large number of Buddhist monasteries viharas were allegedly converted to Hindu temples, in such places as NalandaBodhgayaSarnath or Mathura. While it is established by secular sources that Hinduism and Buddhism were in competition during this time, with the Shungas preferring the former to the latter, historians such as Etienne Lamotte  and Romila Thapar  argue that Buddhist accounts of persecution of Buddhists by Shungas are largely exaggerated.
Some Puranic sources however also describe the resurgence of Brahmanism following the Maurya Dynastyand the killing of millions of Buddhists, such as the Pratisarga Parva of the Bhavishya Purana: By the influence of Vedic mantras, four Kshatriyas appeared from the yajna sacrifice.
Varadpande explores the Indo-Greek interaction in the theatrical arts.
It is difficult not to associate Kanishka's emphasis here on the use of the "Aryan language" with the replacement of Greek by Bactrian on his coinage. The numismatic evidence shows that this must have taken place very early in Kanishka's reign, Nicholas Sims-Williams University of London.
Legacy of the Indo-Greeks
The story of the Trojan horse was depicted in the art of Gandhara. Greek era[ edit ] A Greek "Yona" calendar era seems to have been in use in Northwestern Indian for several centuries following the foundation of the Indo-Greek kingdom. A recently discovered inscription in Kharoshthi on a Buddhist reliquary gives a relationship between several eras of the period: The names of the months belonging to the Ancient Macedonian calendar remained in use under the Indo-Scythians and the Kushans until around the 2nd century CE.
For example the Indo-Scythian Taxila copper plate inscription uses the Macedonian month of " Panemos ". The Yavanajataka contains instructions on calculating astrological charts horoscopes from the time and place of one's birth. Astrology flourished in the Hellenistic world particularly Alexandria and the Yavanajataka reflects astrological techniques developed in the Greek-speaking world.
Various astronomical and mathematical methods, such as the calculation of the 'horoskopos' the zodiac sign on the eastern horizonwere used in the service of astrology. The Paulisa Siddhanta has been tentatively identified with the works of Paulus Alexandrinuswho wrote a well-known astrological hand-book. Post-Mauryan coinage and Post-Mauryan coinage of Gandhara Coin of the Western Kshatrapa ruler Bhratadarman —with corrupted Greek legend on the obverse and Brahmi legend on the reverse.
- India & Greece – A long, deep and ancient relationship
- Greece–India relations
- Indo-Greek Kingdom
A silver coin of the Gupta King Kumara Gupta I — influenced by Indo-Greek coinage through the Western Kshatrapas, with profile of the ruler and obverse legend in pseudo Greek succession of letters H and Oand reverse legend is in Brahmi. Overall, the coinage of the Indo-Greeks remained extremely influential for several centuries throughout the Indian subcontinent: The Indo-Greek weight and size standard for silver drachms was adopted by the contemporary Buddhist kingdom of the Kunindas in Punjab ,[ citation needed ] the first attempt by an Indian kingdom to produce coins that could compare with those of the Indo-Greeks.
Genetic contribution[ edit ] Portraits from the site of Hadda3rd century CE. Limited population genetics studies have been made on genetic markers such as Y-DNA in the populations of the Indian subcontinent, to estimate the contribution of the Greeks to the genetic pool. Such broad estimates are preliminary, at best.