Analyse the effect these factors may have on the counselling relationship. The cultural and social context affects all aspects of life, from how people greet one. Read chapter 11 Impact of Cultural, Social, and Community Environments on Home The simple onion or Russian doll rendering of social-ecological relations as .. One study found higher use of physical and occupational therapy among. By cross-cultural counseling we refer to counseling for persons from different In the Mediterranean civilizations of ancient Egypt or the Roman Empire, the one, because language has a high correlation with culture and the perception of.
Some may even make this a consideration in the choice of a spouse. This gendered approach to height may reflect other asymmetries between men and women, such as disparities in wages. While the strength of this cultural expectation may be waning and may vary across groups defined by socioeconomic statusit gives a feel for the subtle but powerful influence of culture.
How do people identify these cultural expectations, and how might they be relevant for decisions about home care?
Marriage and Family in Western Civilization
Essentially, this approach extends investigation of folk taxonomies e. Early on, in such an investigation I conducted for caregiver tasks, I determined that caregivers distinguished among emotional, cognitive, and physical disability support Albert, More recently, the same technique has been used to elicit expectations regarding more abstract cultural domains, such as what makes success in life, leisure activity, social support, and family relationships Dressler et al. For the latter, Dressler and colleagues asked a sample of Brazilians to list the goods or possessions people need to lead a good life, or the activities people typically engage in during their free time, or who they typically turn to for different kinds of support and subjected these lists to formal analysis designed to examine the degree of consensus across respondents.
Notably, people whose lists or ratings were not consonant with the dominant cultural pattern were more likely to have poorer mental and physical health and even higher blood pressure. In the cultural domain of home care, it would be valuable to conduct a similar investigation. Some potential elicitation frames might include the following: What changes in your home would be appropriate when a family member is seriously ill and may die?
What changes in your household would you need to make in order to provide quality care for a family member receiving home health care services? What aspects of a home make it hard or easy for a home health care worker to do his or her job? Family members with experience of home care would be likely to generate a long list of answers to the first elicitation, which might include hospice services, infusion technologies, a hospital bed, a commode, smart home telemonitoring, more reliable telephone or utility service, modifications to the home to increase access, a place to store medical supplies, a separate place for visitors or other family members, and perhaps others.
Some caregivers would produce shorter lists, some longer, but it is likely that a single cultural consensus would emerge. This elicitation would allow a first look at the cultural domain of home care. A reasonable hypothesis would involve less efficient decision making and perhaps poorer outcomes for patients by caregivers who do not express the consensus view.
This approach to culture does not involve differences among ethnicities or people who speak different languages but rather the operation of culture in Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: Family caregivers and health care professionals in a single culture may differ in expectations for care or home accommodation, but these differences may be less salient than cross-cultural differences associated with ethnicity, race, country, or language. A growing body of research suggests that expectations regarding care differ across cultures Sommer et al.
For example, cultures differ in the degree to which pain, limitation in activity, or cognitive impairment is considered an appropriate cause for medical intervention. In the United States, minorities are less likely to use skilled nursing facilities and perhaps more likely to tolerate dementia and old-age disability at home Hinton and Levkoff, ; Whitehouse et al.
The elicitation of home care culture described above can be used to identify subcultures and also differences across cultures.
We turn now to some cross-cultural differences identified for expectations of home care. Commitment to Family Care Ethnic and cultural groups differ in their commitment to family care. African Americans are more likely than whites to endorse the primacy of family care Dilworth-Anderson et al.
Similarly, Latinos delay institutionalization relative to whites; a higher cultural value assigned to family care leads to more positive views of family caregiving, which in turn leads to a negative evaluation of skilled nursing facilities as an option for dementia or end-of-life care Mausbach et al.
Differences in commitment to family care are based on cultural norms of filial piety or obligation. The concept of xiao, or filial piety, is a well-developed element in Chinese culture. However, it is strongly gendered, so that the burden of such care falls on adult daughters or daughters-in-law, not sons Zhan, Norms of filial obligation are heavily influenced by education, with greater acceptability and use of skilled nursing home care evident among more highly educated people.
As minorities advance through the educational and occupational ladders, these differences in recourse to skilled care may lessen. Little information is available for differences among cultural groups in receptivity to home adaptation. Given differences in recourse to institutional placement, as described earlier, cultures with a strong bias toward home care may be more receptive to adaptation of homes to accommodate medical technologies.
However, these households may face other social or community constraints that make it difficult to deliver such technologies. I return to these points below. Latina caregivers report lower appraisals of stress and greater perceived benefits of caregiving; they also make greater use of religious coping than white caregivers Coon et al. Similarly, African American caregivers report lower anxiety, greater well-being, and more perceived benefits of caregiving than white caregivers Haley et al.
More generally, cultures differ in how well reciprocity between care receivers and caregivers is maintained after the onset of caregiving Becker et al. Communication with Health Professionals A central finding in medical anthropology is the difference between illness and disease Kleinman, Eisenberg, and Good, Clinicians diagnose and treat disease abnormalities in body structure or functionbut patients suffer illness, in which symptoms carry social significance and force changes in social function.How Culture Drives Behaviours - Julien S. Bourrelle - TEDxTrondheim
Illness depends on social status and systems of meaning used to understand symptoms. Thus, families and health professionals may start with completely different premises when they collaborate to ameliorate disease or manage disability. A striking example is a culture-bound syndrome, susto. It is a folk or culture-bound syndrome to the extent that it is not associated with a particular abnormality in body structure or function recognized by Western medicine.
Why do immigrants have to hold onto their own cultures and languages? If my group is excluded, what can I do? How do I protect my children from being targeted by racism or sexism other forms of discrimination if I live in a diverse society? If each person overcame their own prejudices, would all the divisions disappear?
How do I overcome my prejudices? Is prejudice a thing of the past?
Why can't we all just get along? What do you think about these questions? Which issues do you struggle with? What other issues are important to you or your cultural group?
As you envision the kind of diverse community, you and your neighbors may want to consider these kinds of questions. These are some of the real and tough questions that people grapple with on a daily basis. These questions point to some of the tensions that arise as we try to build harmonious, active, and diverse communities in a country as a complex as ours.
There are no easy answers; we are all learning as we go. So, what kind of community do you envision for yourself? How will diversity be approached in your community? If you could have your ideal community right now what would it look like?
If you can't have your ideal community right now, what will be the next steps you will take in building the kind of cultural community you want? Here are some questions that may help you think about your community: Who lives in your community right now? What kinds of diversity already exists?
What kinds of relationships are established between cultural groups? Are the different cultural groups well organized? What kind of struggles between cultures exist?
What kind of struggles within cultural groups exist? Are these struggles openly recognized and talked about? Are there efforts to build alliances and coalitions between groups? What issues do different cultural groups have in common?
These are some of the questions that can get you thinking about your how to build the kind of community you hope for. What other issues do you think are important to consider?
Marriage and Family in Western Civilization | National Association of Scholars
What are your next steps? So, you may ask, "How do we get started? Helpful tips to start building a diverse community In the book, Healing into Action, authors Cherie Brown and George Mazza list principles that, when put into practice, help create a favorable environment for building diverse communities. The following guidelines are taken from their principles: In order for people to commit to working on diversity, every person needs to feel that they will be included and important.
Each person needs to feel welcomed in the effort to create a diverse community. And each person needs to know that their culture is important to others. Guilt doesn't work in fostering diversity. Blaming people as a way of motivating them is not effective. Shaming people for being in a privileged position only causes people to feel bad; it doesn't empower them to take action to change.
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People are more likely to change when they are appreciated and liked, not condemned or guilt-tripped. Treating everyone the same may be unintentionally oppressive. Although every person is unique, some of us have been mistreated or oppressed because we are a member of a particular group. In married couples dropped below half of all households for the first time in American history.
According to the Census Bureau, married couples represented just 48 percent of American households, far below the 78 percent of households occupied by married couples in In Marriagethe late Emory University historian Elizabeth Fox-Genovese explains that marriage has enjoyed a privileged status within Western civilization as the primary social unit of civil society—the essential bond that created a bridge between the sexes.
In short, marriage has always demanded that both men and women sacrifice a considerable measure of individual freedom to act in the interest of the family. At the founding, America adopted the Western concepts of civil marriage and family, in which the mother played the primary role shared with the father in nurturing children, with the formation of character and moral values as essential objectives.
The self-reliant family and marriage was the cornerstone of poverty avoidance. During the s, reports Columbia Professor of History and progressive Eric Foner in The Story of American Freedomthe companionate domestic marriage reached its peak in American history. But all that would change with the advance of progressivism and the advent of postmodern multiculturalism in the s.
The Great Society programs began to substitute the welfare state for the family and civil society as developers of the faculties of the individual and children—further social constructionism. Friedan was steeped in Marxist theories of psychological alienation, oppression and bourgeois ennui. From members and followers of the Frankfurt School and despite widespread criticism that its research had been fitted to conclusions reached in advance and that it lacked evidenceThe Authoritarian Personality changed academic attitudes towards the family within psychology and sociology.
Herbert Marcuse argued that monogamous marriage enforced submission to social rules and the compulsion to work. Cultural Marxism and psychoanalysis converged on the theory that the patriarchal, authoritarian family and its repressive morality served the interests of class society.