Gilgamesh and Enkidu - immobilier-haute-garonne.info
Parents, Lugalbanda and Ninsun. This article contains cuneiform script. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of cuneiform script. Gilgamesh was a historical king of the Sumerian city- state of Uruk, a major hero in ancient .. The putative relationship between the Epic of Gilgamesh and the Hebrew. The Epic says that Gilgamesh is the son of Lugalbanda, the priest-king bit of the mystery embedded in the relationship of these two buddies of world literature. Gilgamesh's father was the Priest-King Lugalbanda (who is featured in two poems concerning his magical abilities which pre-date Gilgamesh).
She falls in love with Gilgamesh and she 7 For a discussion of these texts see George The real King has me.
This motive still occures in a late first millenium cuneiform text that describes Alexander victory over Dareios by this well-known paradigma. So Gilgamesh tells Ishtar that he is not interested. The goddess is heavily insulted and she decides to ask her father to give her the mighty Bull of Heaven in order to kill the im- polite Gilgamesh. The god An first refuses, but when Inanna threa- tens to destroy the world he decides to give her the bull.
So Inanna releases the Bull of Heaven, but not even this powerful animal is able to overcome Gilgamesh and Enkidu. Finally the two friends manage to kill him and they dedicate his skulls to the temple of Inanna — maybe a further insult to enrage her, but the story ends here Gilgamesh, Enkidu and the nether world: This very interesting story is one of our main sources for the Mesopotamian conception of the underworld in the third millennium and also the first text in his- tory which mentions a kind of hockey game The text starts with a story about Inanna planting a tree in order to make furniture out of it when it has grown tall.
But after a while, when the tree had grown tall strange creatures started to live in it and Inanna could not approach it anymore.
So she asks the other gods for help but they do not seem to be interested in driving away the strange creatures from the tree, so she finally asks Gilgamesh and he helps her. He kills the strange creatures and chops down the tree. As reward he gets a piece of wood from this heavenly tree and he makes a stick and a ball out of it. The young men in Uruk are crazy for this new game and they are playing all the day. The women are somewhat enraged because they have to bring water for the players.
When the next day comes the men start playing again and they ask the women to bring them water, but the women do not want the men to play anymore and they ask the gods for help. So a god opens a hole in the earth through which the ball and the stick fall into the netherworld. Enkidu is so eager to get the stick and ball back that he even dares to move to the netherworld in order to fulfill his mission.
But there he forgets any advice Gilgamesh told him and so he has to stay there. Rollinger discusses the game and the gaming devices mentioned in this text in more detail. Huwawa is the demonic guard of the cedar forest. In order to get famous, to make themselves a name, Gil- gamesh and Enkidu leave Uruk to defeat Huwawa and to bring some of his precious cedars to Unug.
When they meet Huwawa things look pretty bad for the two heroes, but finally they manage to capture him by a trick. In the end he has none of them left and Gilgamesh und Enkidu can capture him with ease and decide to kill him. This act was seen as a crime because in the end of the narration Enlil, the most important god, tells Enkidu and Gilgamesh that they had done something wrong and takes the ra- diances from Gilgamesh The death of Gilgamesh: This text starts with a lamentation concerning the illness of Gilgamesh.
In a dream Gilgamesh visits the assembly of the gods where the gods are deciding his fate. They decide that he has to die, but he should get a prominent place as a judge in the netherworld. The text ends with praise to the great leader Gilgamesh All these texts praising the fabulous deeds of Gilgamesh seem to have been written down in the Ur-III period, but most of the ma- nuscripts we have are from the beginning of the second millennium 13 For an edition and translation see http: They can be compared to the me.
For a brief description of Mesopotamien mourning rites see Maul If one has a closer look at some of the hymns written to praise Shulgi one also touches upon Gilgamesh.
Shulgi praises his abilities as a warrior and sportsman19, so Gilgamesh was already a kind of prototype for the ideal king in Ur III times The mentioning of Gilgamesh as a brother of Shulgi may hint to the at- tempt of this king to establish a genealogical relationship to Gilgamesh. Akkadian Gilgamesh Texts A broader Akkadian Gilgamesh-tradition starts in the begin- ning of the second millennium.
The spreading of the text shows us that the story was really appreciated, but unfortunately all the texts we have from the second millennium are too fragmentary to recon- struct the outline of the whole Gilgamesh story. We have tablets on Gilgamesh attested from practically all places where cuneiform was used. All these texts are generally used to reconstruct the so called standard version from the first millennium because there are still many gaps in it.
But whoever was the author of the standard-version, he defini- 17 George7 mentions three manuscripts from the Ur III period.
He managed to unite the tradition in one opus magnum and to establish the role of Gilgamesh in world literature.
The storyline of the standard-version The text starts with a description of the mighty king Gilgamesh and his city Uruk. He [Gilgamesh] goes about in the sheepfold of Uruk, lording like a wild bull, head held hight. He has not any equal, his weapons being ready, his companions are kept on their feet by the ball.
The young man of Uruk are wrongfully vexed, Gilgamesh lets no son go free to his father. Day and night he behaves with fierce arrogance. Tablet I, 25 The population asks the gods for help and so the goddess Ar- ruru creates a kind of counterpart, an equal to Gilgamesh: Arurru washed her hands, she took a pinch of clay, she threw it down in the wild.
In the wild she created Enkidu, the hero, an offspring of silence, knit strong by Ninurta. All his body is matted with hair, he is adorned with tresses like a woman: Tablet I, 26 A hunter is afraid of Enkidu because he destroys all his traps and he is not able to catch any animal because they are protected by the mighty Enkidu.
He complains about this and his father gives him the advice to ask Gilgamesh for help to tame and civilize Enkidu. Shamhat meets Enkidu at the waterhole and there she undresses like she was told by Gilgamesh: Shamhat let loose her skirts, she bared her sex and he took in her charms. She showed no fear, she took in his scent: For six days and seven nights Enkidu, erect, did couple with Shamhat. After he was sated with 25 George The gazelles saw Enkidu and they started running, the animals of the wild moved away from his person.
Enkidu had defiled his body so pure, his legs stood still, though his herd was on the move. Tablet I, 27 The contact with Shamhat alienates Enkidu from his herd. Shamhat now shows him the ways of civilized man, she makes him eat bread, drink beer and wear a garment. After some time working as a shepherd Enkidu leaves for Uruk and there he encounters Gilgamesh and the two heroes start to fight but no one is able to outdo the other and so they get friends.
The Nurturing Goddess Ninsun: Worshipped by Ancient Mesopotamians and the Mother of Gilgamesh
After having become friends Gilgamesh and Enkidu want to es- tablish their names and so they are searching for adventure. Gilgamesh decides that he wants to defeat Humbaba, the guard of the Forest of Cedar. Humbaba, his voice is the Deluge, his speech is fire, his breath is death. Adad is the first, but he is the second! Who is there among the Igigi that would oppose him? In order to keep the ce- dars safe, Enlil made it his destiny to be the terror of the people.
And he who ventures into his forest, feebleness will seize him! Tablet II, 28 Unfortunately he is not able to convince Gilgamesh to skip his plans and so fate takes its inevitable path. Like in the Sumerian ver- sion they overcome Humbaba by a trick and manage to kill him.
At this point the Standard Version inserts a version of the story of Gilga- mesh and the Bull of Heaven, which is very similar to the Sumerian one. Enlil is really enraged because they killed his guard of the Cedar Forest and with the assembly of the gods he decides that one of the heroes has to die and they select Enkidu.
Gilgamesh loses his best friend because he ignored his advice and he falls into a deep depression.
The Genealogy of Gilgamesh | Sebastian Fink - immobilier-haute-garonne.info
For his friend Enkidu Gilgamesh was weeping bitterly as he roamed the wild: Sorrow has entered my heart. Through this tunnel Gil- gamesh reaches the edge of the world. Gil- gamesh asks Siduri how to get to the only human being that was re- warded with immortality by the gods: With some violence Gilgamesh convinces Ur-Shanabi to take him to his master.
Gilgamesh manages to get this plant but he does not take it immediately because he first wants to feed it to an old man in Uruk in order to test it. On the way to Uruk he takes a bath in a pool and a in the meanwhile a snake steals the plant. The obscurity of the translation and our general lack of familiarity with the Sumerian religious culture leaves open the possibility that Enkidu in fact survived his journey to the underworld and was revived or resurrected when Gilgamesh intervened.
The fate of ghosts in the afterlife seems to depend on whether their surviving sons perform the necessary rites to honor them after their death.
In one recently recovered version from Ur to the south west of Urukthe story continues: Gilgamesh and Enkidu go home together, and Gilgamesh then vows to always honor the ghosts of his mother and father through rites.
This ending makes more sense to me than just ending it at the inventory of woes of dead people who leave behind no sons. What is puzzling is that in the Gilgamesh Epic standard version the penultimate tablet has Enkidu very much dead, a decaying corpse, in fact, with a worm dropping out of its nose. Tablet XI in the Akkadian version is clearly an appendix, as if the poet had wanted us to know the original Sumerian story and be able to compare it to his Akkadian adaptation, which we now know as the Epic of Gilgamesh.
There is one more tablet in old Sumerian in which Gilgamesh, now old, is on his deathbed. He makes preparations for his funeral and pleads with the gods for immortality. The gods deny him immortality but on account of his good deeds they promise him privileged status in the underworld where he will sit as judge of the dead and decree their fate in the underworld.
And here are my reasons. Stroked version Photo credit: He is the one whom she marries.
On Gilgamesh and Dumuzi – Write, Rather
Yet in the very, very ancient Gilgamesh tablet, Inanna is a young girl, and it is Gilgamesh who fashions the marriage bed and begins the worship of her. In this poem, Inanna is at the start of her life, not the older widow that appears in the Gilgamesh Epic. In this Sumerian poem there is no mention of her ever having been married, nor any mention of any Dumuzi in the picture. In the Inanna poems, Dumuzi competes with Enkidu for the love of Inanna. Enkidu in the Inanna epic is a god of grains, and his competition with Dumuzi is over which of the two is the superior, since Dumuzi is a shepherd and can therefore provide Inanna or the city of Uruk with the perks of cream, wool, and milk.
It ends in Enkidu backing away from the fight and offering friendship to Dumuzi. This competition over superiority which ends in friendship is mirrored in the Epic of Gilgamesh the Akkadian versionwhen Gilgamesh and Enkidu first fight over the right of bedding a bride. However, what actually was a practice of Sumerian kings was to bed the high priestesses shamatu who represent the goddess Inanna and to confirm their power by a ritual known as a holy marriage, precisely the ritual described in some detail in all the Inanna poems.
It would be more politically sensible that Gilgamesh fights Enkidu because the foreign Enkidu threatens the authority of Gilgamesh by preventing Gilgamesh from consummating the marriage rights with the shamatu not a proper name as the translator of the Epic of Gilgamesh suggest, but a title which would confirm his kingship and put him in the graces of the protecting goddess, Inanna. I am not saying that Enkidu is Elamite; I am suggesting, in fact, that he may represent a different city or culture, perhaps Ur, one with which Gilgamesh forged allegiances he later used to invade other territories.
In the Inanna poems, Dumuzi who is human, earns divinity and kingship by marriage to Inanna. Moreover, while there is some lack of consensus, Dumuzi and Gilgamesh seem to share the same mother, Ninsun or Nin Duttur.
Inanna giveth and Inanna taketh away. In the Inanna poems, Inanna leaves her comfortable kingdom in Uruk to travel to the underworld on a mission. What is the reason for Inanna venturing to the underworld? In none of the translations is this reason clear. In one version Inanna wants to offer condolences to the queen of the underworld for the death of Gugalana, or The Bull of Heaven — which creates an awkward non-chronological loop in the myths because in some translations, Dumuzi is also referred to as the Bull of Heaven.
Sensual because there is a lot of sharing: The question that came to my mind while I was meditating on the Soul Sibling is why then not so much is said or written about the vital relationship we have with them? Best friends are a reality, a sacred bond that is respected, but somehow not fully acknowledged or encouraged as a fundamental experience in defining the Self, the essence of the personality in the world that also reflects the World Soul.
To fully appreciate this question means to dive into the depths of our full humanity and go beyond sexual preferences, something all fundamentalist faiths do not handle very well due to their own agendas about being and behaving. Best friends make us whole, they are the first initiators we have who teach us about the mirrors of wholeness of what we may become. This is why there is so much ambiguity about them, i.
Another sign of our modern religious impoverishment, because Gilgamesh is passionate about Enkidu, although it is never said that the feeling is sexual, that they did make love to each other. If this is so, we can clearly see why the exaltation of the best friend is a major problem for all father-oriented religions of our days. I would like to stress the point that it is not implied in the text that Gilgamesh and Enkidu were lovers in the physical sense.
They were though the best friends possible in all worlds, and this is a grace beyond measure. What can we then learn about Enkidu and Gilgamesh, or the transformative gifts of the Soul Sibling? And just perhaps one of the greatest mysteries of the Soul Sibling is that there is no asymetry in the relationship: This is the real meaning of the bond between Enkidu and Gilgamesh, ideal self and bright shadow that stands by wherever we are.
Finally, how have I experienced the mystery of Gilgamesh and Enkidu in me? In real life, I have lived in many places, in three continents, to be more exact, always long enough to meet a best friend. These have been intense, vibrant relationships that do not involve sexual feelings, but shared experiences in multilayered levels. None and all of them, because we all reached out for one another in different times.