Pizarro Executes Last Inca Emperor - HISTORY
In they captured the Inca ruler Atahualpa: Pizarro demanded he was not actually a blood relation to the other three Pizarro brothers. Pizarro had a relationship much like Cortez. He befriended them for a short time, then found the right time to strike down on the Incas. Pizarro. Inca is actually singular--it refers to the leader. It's like saying, "king of the Andean people." It was pretty bad. Pizarro kidnapped the Inca and his.
Unknown to Pizarro, as he was lobbying for permission to mount an expedition, his proposed enemy was being devastated by the diseases brought to the American continents during earlier Spanish contacts. When Pizarro arrived in Peru inhe found it vastly different from when he had been there just five years before.
Amid the ruins of the city of Tumbes, he tried to piece together the situation before him. From two young local boys whom he had taught how to speak Spanish in order to translate for him, Pizarro learned of the civil war and of the disease that was destroying the Inca Empire.
- How did 168 conquistadors take down the Incan empire?
- Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire
- What kind of relationship did the Incas have with Pizarro?
The Indians described Pizarro's men to the Inca. They said that capito was tall with a full beard and was completely wrapped in clothing. The Indians described the men's swords and how they killed sheep with them. The men did not eat human flesh, but rather sheep, lamb, duck, pigeons, and deer, and cooked the meat.
Atahualpa was fearful of what the white men were capable of. If they were runa quicachac or "destroyers of peoples," then he should flee. If they were viracocha cuna runa allichac or "gods who are benefactors of the people," then he should not flee, but welcome them. After traveling with the Spanish, Cinquinchara returned to Atahualpa; they discussed whether or not the Spanish men were gods.
Cinquinchara decided they were men because he saw them eat, drink, dress, and have relations with women. He saw them produce no miracles. Cinquinchara informed Atahualpa that they were small in number, about — men, and had bound the Indian captives with "iron ropes". When Atahualpa asked what to do about the strangers, Cinquinchara said that they should be killed because they were evil thieves who took whatever they wanted, and were supai cuna or "devils". He recommended trapping the men inside of their sleeping quarters and burning them to death.
Pizarro sent his captain Hernando de Soto to invite Atahualpa to a meeting. Soto rode to meet Atahualpa on his horse, an animal that Atahualpa had never seen before.
With one of his young interpreters, Soto read a prepared speech to Atahualpa telling him that they had come as servants of God to teach them the truth about God's word.
Pizarro Executes Last Inca Emperor
He replied with what he had heard from his scouts, saying that Pizarro and his men were killing and enslaving countless numbers on the coast. Pizarro denied the report and Atahualpa, with limited information, reluctantly let the matter go. At the end of their meeting, the men agreed to meet the next day at Cajamarca. Pizarro and his men reached that city on 15 November Hernando Pizarro and De Soto explained they were emissaries of Emperor Charles I of Spainto offer their services, and "impart to him the doctrines of the true faith.
Atahualpa replied that his fast would end the next day, when he would visit Pizarro. When De Soto noticed Atahualpa's interest in his horse, he put on a display of "excellent horsemanship" in close proximity. Atahualpa displayed hospitality by serving refreshments. When Atahualpa arrived with about 6, unarmed followers, Friar Vincente de Valverde and Felipillo met them and proceeded to "expound the doctrines of the true faith" and seek his tribute as a vassal of King Charles.
The unskilled translator likely contributed to problems in communication. The friar offered Atahualpa the Bible as the authority of what he had just stated. Atahualpa stated, "I will be no man's tributary. Though the historical accounts relating to these circumstances vary, the true Spanish motives for the attack seemed to be a desire for loot and flat-out impatience.
The Inca likely did not adequately understand the conquistadors ' demands. The effect was devastating, the shocked Incas offered such feeble resistance that the battle has often been labeled a massacrewith the Inca losing 2, dead. Pizarro also used cavalry charges against the Inca forces, which stunned them in combination with gunfire.
This was a major disadvantage for the Inca. Their undoing also resulted from a lack of self-confidence, and a desire to make public demonstration of fearlessness and godlike command of situation. While Spanish armour was very effective against most of the Andean weapons, it was not impenetrable to maces, clubs, or slings.
The battle began with a shot from a cannon and the battle cry " Santiago! Most natives adapted in 'guerrilla fashion' by only shooting at the legs of the conquistadors if they happened to be unarmored. According to the Spanish envoy's demands, Atahualpa offered to fill a large room with gold and promised the Spanish twice that amount in silver. While Pizarro ostensibly accepted this offer and allowed the gold to pile up, he had no intention of releasing the Inca; he needed Atahualpa's influence over his generals and the people in order to maintain the peace.
When Atahualpa was captured at the massacre at Cajamarca, he was treated with respect, allowed his wives to join him, and the Spanish soldiers taught him the game of chess.
Francisco Pizzaro sent a similar expedition to Cuzco, bringing back many gold plates from the Temple of the Sun. By FebruaryAlmagro had joined Pizarro in Cajamarca with an additional men with 50 horses. By 3 May Pizarro received all the treasure he had requested; it was melted, refined, and made into bars. False interpretations from the interpreter Felipillo made the Spaniards paranoid.
They were told that Atahualpa had ordered secret attacks and his warriors were hidden in the surrounding area. Soto went with a small army to look for the hidden army, but a trial for Atahualpa was held in his absence. Among the charges were polygamy, incestuous marriage, and idolatry, all frowned upon in Catholicism but common in Inca culture and religion.
The men who were against Atahualpa's conviction and murder argued that he should be judged by King Charles since he was the sovereign prince. Atahualpa agreed to accept baptism to avoid being burned at the stake and in the hopes of one day rejoining his army and killing the Spanish; he was baptized as Francisco. On 29 August Atahualpa was garrotted and died a Christian.
He was buried with Christian rites in the church of San Francisco at Cajamarca, but was soon disinterred. His body was taken, probably at his prior request, to its final resting place in Quito.
Upon de Soto's return, he was furious; he had found no evidence of any secret gathering of Atahualpa's warriors.
The latter was burned alive in the Jauja Valley, accused of secret communication with Quizquiz, and organizing resistance. Pizarro's force entered the heart of the Tawantinsuyu on 15 November Greedy for gold, Alvarado had set sail for the south without the crown's authorization, landed on the Ecuadorian coast, and marched inland to the Sierra. Finding Quito empty of its treasures, Alvarado soon joined the combined Spanish force. Alvarado agreed to sell his fleet of twelve ships, his forces, plus arms and ammunition, and returned to Guatemala.
He began his rule as an ally of the Spanish and was respected in the southern regions of the empire, but there was still much unrest in the north near Quito where Atahualpa's generals were amassing troops. Atahualpa's death meant that there was no hostage left to deter these northern armies from attacking the invaders. The remains of about 70 men, women, and adolescents were found in the path of a planned expressway near Lima in Forensic evidence suggests that the natives were killed by European weapons, probably during the uprising in However, in he was left in Cuzco under the control of Pizarro's brothers, Juan and Gonzalo, who so mistreated Manco Inca that he ultimately rebelled.
Under the pretense of recovering a statue of pure gold in the nearby Yucay valley, Manco was able to escape Cuzco. The siege of Cuzco was waged until the following spring, and during that time Manco's armies managed to wipe out four relief columns sent from Lima, but was ultimately unsuccessful in its goal of routing the Spaniards from the city. The Inca leadership did not have the full support of all its subject peoples and furthermore, the degrading state of Inca morale coupled with the superior Spanish siege weapons soon made Manco Inca realize his hope of recapturing Cuzco was failing.
Manco Inca eventually withdrew to Tambo. After deadly confrontations, he was murdered by the Spanish in In total, the conquest took about forty years to complete.
Fearing subsequent hostile encounters like the one the expedition endured at the Battle of Punta QuemadaPizarro ended his first expedition and returned to Panama. The governor, who himself was preparing an expedition north to Nicaraguawas reluctant to permit another expedition, having lost confidence in Pizarro. The three associates eventually won his trust and he acquiesced. Soon after arriving the party separated, with Pizarro staying to explore the new and often perilous territory off the swampy Colombian coasts, while the expedition's co-commander, Almagro, returned to Panama for reinforcements.
To everyone's surprise, these carried textiles, ceramic objects and some pieces of gold, silver and emeraldsmaking Ruiz's findings the central focus of this second expedition. Some natives were taken aboard Ruiz's ship to serve as interpreters.
Soon Almagro sailed into the port laden with supplies and a reinforcement of at least eighty recruits who had arrived at Panama from Spain with an expeditionary spirit.
The findings and excellent news from Ruiz along with Almagro's new reinforcements cheered Pizarro and his tired followers. They decided to sail back to the territory already explored by Ruiz and, after a difficult voyage due to strong winds and currents, reached Atacames on the Ecuadorian coast. Here, they found a large native population recently brought under Inca rule.
Francisco Pizarro - Wikipedia
Unfortunately for the conquistadores, the warlike spirit of the people they encountered seemed so defiant and dangerous in numbers that the Spanish decided not to enter the land. Fearing an unsuccessful outcome, he rejected Almagro's application for continued resources.
In addition, he ordered two ships commanded by Juan Tafur to be sent immediately with the intention of bringing Pizarro and his crew back to Panama. Choose, each man, what best becomes a brave Castilian.
For my part, I go to the south. They later became known as "The Famous Thirteen " Los trece de la fama: Ruiz left in one of the ships with the intention of joining Almagro and Luque in their efforts to gather reinforcements.
Soon after the ships left, Pizarro and his men constructed a crude boat and journeyed 25 leagues north to La Isla Gorgona, where they would remain for seven months before the arrival of new provisions.
Pizarro and the Inca | HowStuffWorks
Almagro and Luque grasped the opportunity and left Panama this time without new recruits for La Isla Gorgona to once again join Pizarro. On meeting with Pizarro, the associates decided to continue sailing south on the recommendations of Ruiz's Indian interpreters.
Tumbes became the first success the Spanish had so long desired. They were received with a warm welcome of hospitality and provisions from the Tumpis, the local inhabitants. On subsequent days two of Pizarro's men, Alonso de Molina and Pedro de Candiareconnoitered the territory and both, on separate accounts, reported back the riches of the land, including the decorations of silver and gold around the chief's residence and the hospitable attentions with which they were received by everyone.
The Spanish also saw for the first time the Peruvian llama: The natives began calling the Spanish the "Children of the Sun" due to their fair complexions and brilliant armor. Pizarro, meanwhile, continued receiving the same accounts of a powerful monarch who ruled over the land they were exploring. These events served as evidence to convince the expedition that the wealth and power displayed at Tumbes were an example of the riches of the Peruvian territory.
The conquistadors decided to return to Panama to prepare the final expedition of conquest with more recruits and provisions. Before leaving, however, Pizarro and his followers sailed south along the coast to see if anything of interest could be found.
Prescott recounts that after passing through territories they named such as Cabo Blanco, port of Payta, Sechura, Punta de Aguja, Santa Cruz and Trujillo founded by Almagro years laterthey finally reached for the first time the ninth degree of the southern latitude in South America.
On their return towards Panama, Pizarro briefly stopped at Tumbes, where two of his men had decided to stay to learn the customs and language of the natives. After at least 18 months away, Pizarro and his followers anchored off the coasts of Panama to prepare for the final expedition.
Pizarro sailed from Panama for Spain in the spring ofaccompanied by Pedro de Candia, some natives and llamas, plus samples of fabric, gold and silver. The conquistador described the territory as rich in gold and silver that he and his followers had bravely explored "to extend the empire of Castile". The king, who was soon to leave for Italy, was impressed at his accounts and promised his support for the conquest of Peru.
Pizarro was officially named the Governor, Captain generalAdelantado and Alguacil Mayor, of New Castile for the distance of leagues along the newly discovered coast and invested with all authority and prerogatives, leaving his associates in secondary positions a fact that later incensed Almagro and would lead to eventual discord. One of the grant conditions was that within six months, Pizarro should raise a sufficiently equipped force of men, of whom might be drawn from the colonies.
Two more of his brothers from his father, Juan Pizarro and Gonzalo Pizarro: He was there joined by his brother Hernando and the remaining men in two vessels that would sail back to Panama. The latter had stayed in Panama to gather more recruits.
Soon after, Hernando de Sotoanother conquistador who had joined the expedition, arrived with volunteers and horses to aid Pizarro and with him sailed towards Tumbes, : The two conquistadors expected that the settlers had disappeared or died under murky circumstances.
The chiefs explained that the fierce tribes of Punians had attacked them and ransacked the place. After a week, he returned with an envoy from the Inca himself, with presents and an invitation to visit the Inca ruler's camp.
Arriving at Cajamarca on 15 NovemberPizarro had a force of just foot soldiers, 67 cavalry, three arquebuses and two falconets. He sent Hernando Pizarro and de Soto to meet with Atahualpa in his camp. Atahualpa agreed to meet Pizarro in his Cajamarca plaza fortress the next day.
Fray Vincente de Valverde and native interpreter Felipillo approached Atahualpa in Cajamarca's central plaza. After the Dominican friar expounded the "true faith" and the need to pay tribute to the Emperor Charles VAtahualpa replied, "I will be no man's tributary. The Spanish were successful.