The Merchant of Venice - Wikipedia
It also shows that he trusts the people whom he holds dear. Bassanio approaches his friend Antonio, a wealthy merchant of Venice who has previously and. Free Essay: The play 'The Merchant of Venice', by William The first relationship emphasizes love, respect and trust whereas the other are The Homosexual Relationship Between Antonio and Bassanio in William. Antonio and Bassanio are the closest of friends, and it is their relationship in William Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice that provides the foundation of the.
Throughout the drama, the two friends are more dear than life to each other. Their love and trust for each other are evident at every stage of the drama. He does not differentiate between himself and his friend.
Bassanio has no money and he has been living in debts which he plans to repay.
It is evident that Bassanio has to do little to persuade his friend for money. Antonio is already more than willing to lend him. Antonio knows that his friend needs the money and clearly tells the Jew that had it not been so, he would have treated him just as he always does. This shows his stubbornness and proves that at his heart Antonio is innocent and a little childish. Had it not been so, he would have been able to avoid the trap Shylock had set.
Contract, Friendship, and Love in The Merchant of Venice
This is just to show that he is doing all this for his friend and he would not like to see him disappointed. In addition, Shakespeare gives Shylock one of his most eloquent speeches: Why, I am sure, if he forfeit, thou wilt not take his flesh. What's that good for? To bait fish withal; if it will feed nothing else, it will feed my revenge. He hath disgraced me and hindered me half a million, laughed at my losses, mocked at my gains, scorned my nation, thwarted my bargains, cooled my friends, heated mine enemies — and what's his reason?
I am a Jew. Hath not a Jew eyes? Hath not a Jew hands, organs, dimensions, senses, affections, passions; fed with the same food, hurt with the same weapons, subject to the same diseases, healed by the same means, warmed and cooled by the same winter and summer as a Christian is? If you prick us, do we not bleed? If you tickle us, do we not laugh? If you poison us, do we not die?
And if you wrong us, shall we not revenge? If we are like you in the rest, we will resemble you in that. If a Jew wrong a Christian, what is his humility? If a Christian wrong a Jew, what should his sufferance be by Christian example? The villainy you teach me, I will execute, and it shall go hard but I will better the instruction. One of the reasons for this interpretation is that Shylock's painful status in Venetian society is emphasised.
To some critics, Shylock's celebrated "Hath not a Jew eyes? The Christians in the courtroom urge Shylock to love his enemies, although they themselves have failed in the past. Jewish critic Harold Bloom suggests that, although the play gives merit to both cases, the portraits are not even-handed: In his plays and poetry Shakespeare often depicted strong male bonds of varying homosocialitywhich has led some critics to infer that Bassanio returns Antonio's affections despite his obligation to marry: Commend me to your honourable wife: Tell her the process of Antonio's end, Say how I lov'd you, speak me fair in death; And, when the tale is told, bid her be judge Whether Bassanio had not once a love.
But life itself, my wife, and all the world Are not with me esteemed above thy life; I would lose all, ay, sacrifice them all Here to this devil, to deliver you. Auden describes Antonio as "a man whose emotional life, though his conduct may be chaste, is concentrated upon a member of his own sex.
Contract, Friendship, and Love in The Merchant of Venice - VoegelinView
Antonio's frustrated devotion is a form of idolatry: There is one other such idolator in the play: There was, states Auden, a traditional "association of sodomy with usury", reaching back at least as far as Dantewith which Shakespeare was likely familiar. Auden sees the theme of usury in the play as a comment on human relations in a mercantile society. Other interpreters of the play regard Auden's conception of Antonio's sexual desire for Bassanio as questionable.
Michael Radford, director of the film version starring Al Pacinoexplained that, although the film contains a scene where Antonio and Bassanio actually kiss, the friendship between the two is platonic, in line with the prevailing view of male friendship at the time. Jeremy Ironsin an interview, concurs with the director's view and states that he did not "play Antonio as gay". Joseph Fienneshowever, who plays Bassanio, encouraged a homoerotic interpretation and, in fact, surprised Irons with the kiss on set, which was filmed in one take.
Fiennes defended his choice, saying "I would never invent something before doing my detective work in the text.
If you look at the choice of language … you'll read very sensuous language. That's the key for me in the relationship. The great thing about Shakespeare and why he's so difficult to pin down is his ambiguity. He's not saying they're gay or they're straight, he's leaving it up to his actors. I feel there has to be a great love between the two characters … there's great attraction.
I don't think they have slept together but that's for the audience to decide. Performance history[ edit ] The earliest performance of which a record has survived was held at the court of King James in the spring offollowed by a second performance a few days later, but there is no record of any further performances in the 17th century.
This version which featured a masque was popular, and was acted for the next forty years. Granville cut the clownish Gobbos  in line with neoclassical decorum ; he added a jail scene between Shylock and Antonio, and a more extended scene of toasting at a banquet scene.The Merchant of Venice - Shakespeare Stories in Hindi - Shakespeare Plays in Hindi
He is pleased by the letter and its contents, and bids Gobbo return to let her know that he has received the letter and will not fail her. In Act 2, Scene 5, however, Gobbo is intercepted by Shylock, who berates him for his change of allegiance. Gobbo seizes on Shylock's repeated mentions of Jessica's name as a pretense to call her.
When she arrives, Shylock gives her the keys to his house and the responsibility of keeping it safe while he dines with Antonio and Bassanio. Upon learning there will be a masqueradehe enjoins her to shutter the windows and not "gaze on Christian fools with varnished faces". Having no other option, Gobbo whispers to Jessica to "look out at window for all this.
Shylock catches the interaction and asks Jessica what Gobbo said, but Jessica deceives him and claims he was simply saying goodbye. Shylock then complains of Gobbo's sloth and vociferous appetite, claiming he is well rid of him and glad he now serves Bassiano, whom he dislikes. He leaves for the dinner, and Jessica soliloquises: Farewell, and if my fortune be not crossed, I have a father, you a daughter, lost.
Jessica, The Merchant of Venice  In the following scene—Act 2, Scene 6—Lorenzo and his friends come to Shylock's house, and Jessica greets them from a window, dressed as a boy. She asks Lorenzo to confirm his identity before lowering a casket of her father's Ducats. Lorenzo bids her descend, but Jessica demurs, ashamed of her disguise. Lorenzo persuades her, and she goes inside to bring more of Shylock's Ducats.
Lorenzo praises her to his friends: Antonio then arrives to tell Gratiano that the winds are propitious for sailing and that Bassanio is leaving immediately for Belmont to woo Portia. Gratiano expresses his desire to leave the city immediately.
Jessica next appears at Belmont in Act 3, Scene 2, accompanying Lorenzo and Salerio, a messenger delivering a letter to Bassiano from Antonio. The letter informs him that all Antonio's business ventures have failed, such that he has defaulted on the bond to Shylock, and that Shylock intends to collect on the "pound of flesh".
Then announces that she and Nerissa, her maid, will stay in a nearby convent while their husbands are away. In her absence she asks Lorenzo and Jessica to manage her estate. In Act 3, Scene 5, Jessica and Gobbo banter in the gardens of Belmont; Gobbo claiming that she is tainted by the sins of her father, and she can only hope that she was an illegitimate child and not actually related to Shylock. Jessica protests that then she would be visited by the sins of her mother, and Gobbo concurs that she would be damned either way.
Jessica argues that she has been saved by her husband who has converted her to Christianity, to which Gobbo replies that Bassanio of contributing to the raised price of pork by the conversion of Jews who may not eat pork to Christians who do. Lorenzo joins them and Jessica recounts their conversation, leading to further banter between Lorenzo and Gobbo, until Gobbo leaves to prepare for dinner.
In response to questioning by Lorenzo, Jessica praises Portia as great and peerless. The moon shines bright Watercolor on paper by John Edmund Buckley. Act 5, Scene 1—the final scene of the play, and following on from the courtroom scene in Act 4—opens with Jessica and Lorenzo strolling in the gardens of Belmont.