Akhenaten upended the religion, art, and politics of ancient Egypt, and then his legacy was buried. The city was founded by Akhenaten, a king who, along with his wife Nefertiti and his son, Tutankhamun, .. The connection reveals a surprising scene: Akhenaten performs a ritual not with Nefertiti, but with .. Take the Quiz. “In the process of reconstituting a long-vanished city, the meticulously assembled book also brings to life the exotic, almost alien society once housed there. Start studying Quiz on Akhenaten. Learn vocabulary, terms He is Nefertiti's dad . He is ambivalent about and 1 other. 26 terms. Crucible Character Relations.
Twelve years after the death of Amenhotep III, she is still mentioned in inscriptions as queen and beloved of the king, but kings' mothers often were.Akhenaten - The Heretic Pharaoh of Egypt
International relations[ edit ] Akhenaten in the typical Amarna period style. Painted limestone miniature stela. It shows Akhenaten standing before 2 incense stands, Aten disc above.
Akhenaten - Wikipedia
The Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology, London The Amarna Lettersa cache of diplomatic correspondence discovered in modern times at el-Amarna the modern designation of the site of Akhetatenhave provided important evidence about Akhenaten's reign and foreign policy.
This correspondence comprises a priceless collection of incoming messages on clay tablets sent to Akhetaten from various subject rulers through Egyptian military outposts and from the foreign rulers recognized as "Great Kings" of the kingdom of Mitanniof Babylon, of Assyria, and of Hatti.
The governors and kings of Egypt's subject domains also wrote frequently to plead for gold from the pharaoh, and also complained that he had snubbed and cheated them. Early in his reign, Akhenaten had conflicts with Tushrattathe king of Mitanni, who had courted favor with his father against the Hittites. Tushratta complains in numerous letters that Akhenaten had sent him gold-plated statues rather than statues made of solid gold; the statues formed part of the bride-price which Tushratta received for letting his daughter Tadukhepa marry Amenhotep III and then later marry Akhenaten.
Amarna letter EA 27 preserves a complaint by Tushratta to Akhenaten about the situation: I will give you ones made also of lapis lazuli. I will give you too, along with the statues, much additional gold and [other] goods beyond measure. Your father himself recast the statues [i]n the presence of my messengers, and he made them entirely of pure gold He showed much additional gold, which was beyond measure and which he was sending to me.
He said to my messengers, 'See with your own eyes, here the statues, there much gold and goods beyond measure, which I am sending to my brother. But my brother [i. You have sent plated ones of wood.
Akhenaten, Nefertiti, and Three Daughters (practice) | Khan Academy
Nor have you sent me the goods that your father was going to send me, but you have reduced [them] greatly. Yet there is nothing I know of in which I have failed my brother. Any day that I hear the greetings of my brother, that day I make a festive occasion May my brother send me much gold. In my brother's country gold is as plentiful as dust. May my brother cause me no distress.
A large formal palace connected to a royal estate by means of a bridge over the main north-south road was located nearby.
The road itself led to a northern palace and a riverside settlement laid out along the northern limits of Akhetaton. The royal and religious structures of the central city were surrounded with administrative offices, storerooms, and workshops, as well as extensive suburbs of private villas and smaller private houses. To the far south a separate garden enclosure, called the Maru-Aton, was built, and it seems to have provided a place of recreation for the royal family.
The site of Tell el-Amarna provides invaluable insight into the city layout and domestic architecture of ancient Egypt, and yet it remains very much an atypical settlement, because of its programmatic foundation and its situation on the edge of the desert rather than in the cultivation. The royal tomb, intended for Akhenaten, Nefertiti, and his daughters, was carved in a large wadi east of the city. Not far from the outlet of the royal wadi, the remains of a village for workmen were discovered, apparently the domestic quarters for those skilled craftsmen engaged in cutting and decorating the royal tomb.
One of the most important discoveries from Tell el-Amarna was a cache of clay tablets originating in the records office of the central city, referred to as the Amarna Letters.
Written in an archaic and somewhat provincialized form of Babylonian cuneiformthe tablets represent part of the correspondence between the Egyptian court and other states and vassals of the ancient Middle East. They provide invaluable insight into the nature of diplomatic relations between the great nations and petty states of the 14th century bce as well as an incomplete and tantalizing hint of the strategic maneuvering of the time.
Letters from the great powers BabyloniaAssyriaMitanniand the Hittite court are often preoccupied with the exchange of gifts and diplomatic marriages. Those from the vassal states of Syro-Palestine deal with the local political and military situation and are often filled with complaints of inattention on the part of the Egyptian court.
These communications have been used as the basis for the conclusion that Akhenaten had adopted a pacifist attitude toward the Egyptian empire in Asia, but, considering the selective nature of the letters and the lack of direct evidence from the Levantsuch judgments may in fact be premature.
In addition to Nefertiti, two other queens appear at Akhetaton: Religion of the Aton The religious tenets Akhenaten espoused in his worship of the Aton are not spelled out in detail anywhere.
They must be reconstructed largely from the iconography of the temple reliefs and stelae that depict him with his deity and from the one lengthy religious text from Tell el-Amarna, the Aton Hymnpreserved in several of the private tombs.
Temple texts are thus confined almost entirely to the names and titles of the Aton and those of Akhenaten and his family, who are often shown together on offering stelae from private villas. The Aton Hymn itself is largely a forceful description of natural effects. It describes the solar disk as the prime mover of life, whose daily rising rejuvenates all living things on earth and at whose setting all creatures go to sleep.
While the Aton is said to have created the world for men, it seems that the ultimate goal of creation is really the king himself, whose intimate and privileged connection to his god is emphasized.
Divine revelation and knowability are reserved for Akhenaten alone, and the hymn is ultimately neutral in regard to explicating the mysteries of divinity. The hymn has certain passages that are shared by a wider literary tradition and are not unique to Akhenaten; some have similarities to Psalm see Psalms. At some point after his fifth regnal year, Akhenaten initiated a program to erase the name and image of the Theban god, Amonfrom all monuments, a decision that wreaked widespread destruction in many Egyptian temples.
Whether his beliefs ever took hold in the public imagination, or even among the residents of Akhetaton itself, remains uncertain.