Depression in high voltage power line workers The ERI has been used to assess the relationship between psychosocial factors and health (NIMH) of the United States, aim to identify depressive mood in population studies. It measures the presence of current depressive symptoms, with an emphasis on the affective . Continuity testing is the act of testing the resistance between two points. It should emit a tone indicating that power is free to flow from the VCC pin to the micro. If the system is on, carefully check VCC and GND with the voltage setting to. The abundant use of high voltage transmission (HVT) lines has Studies exploring the relationship between exposure to power EMF .. not affect cognitive performance parameters, such as mood, vigilance, and reporting of symptoms. In the current study, the intensity of power frequency electric fields in.
Yes, it fulfills needs, but it's no fun to only think about needs. We don't need lightsabers or hoverboards. But you know we all damn well want them. Interesting about the saltwater bag. I didn't know that. But let me be more direct and honest: I I want to use a stylus on my ipad that has the fine tip ballpoint pen status and projects the same electric field that a human finger does since the sensor grid refuses to acknowledge anything less than 4mm in widthso as to change the voltage of the capacitors surrounding the tip just like touching the glass with a finger does.
And before you say "buy one" I refuse.
But most important of all: I want to make it myself. Avoiding the high prices of store-bought styli sounds like a nice idea.
Here's a guess about what might work well. Take a a little metal rod a few mm thick with a nice rounded end. You could even round an end with a file. Coatings like that are available iin hardware stores for not much cost.
The purpose of the coating is to prevent damaging the screen when your home-made stylus accidentally touches it. Since we don't really have any experience in this business, please do not sue us for damaging your screen if something screws up. Hi, thank you for your help. May I can I measure the capacitance of a material?
For example, the thin plastic stuff that was stated in the previous answer. How would you measure the capacitance, using a cheap way if possible?
How to measure the capacitance of some little capacitor depends a lot on what you have available. The easiest way is no surprise here to use a capacitance meter. If you happen to already have an oscilloscope with a high-impedance input, you can charge up the capacitor with a battery and then let the charge drain off through a big resistor while monitoring the voltage on the scope.
There are all sorts of variations on this theme, such as seeing how much ac current flows through the capacitor for a particular ac voltage, in case you have an ordinary ac meter to measure current and voltage and some suitable source of ac voltage. Don't use voltage from standard outlets. It's too big and could kill you or damage your little capacitor. You want a small voltage, and probably at much higher frequency to make the current through the capacitor big enough to measure.
Have there been any studies into the impact of constantly using our bodies body capacitance to make the touch screen devices work? There are plenty of studies showing the impact of technology on our capacity to think, reason, learn. Surely there has to be an enormous impact from having all these cellphone transmissions flying through the air. And, as well, an impact from constantly using touch screens. Constantly using body capacitance through the use of touch screens has to have an impact, as well.
Any real studies been done on this? It's okay to disagree with the standard response. But ask yourself this: What standards would a study have to adhere to?
Who would you trust to do it right? Would it need to be repeated by others? If the result didn't support what you already believe, would you suspect the truth was being covered up somehow? If you can't think of anything that would convince you, that should be a warning that you're letting yourself be guided more by how you feel about the issue than by evidence.
Scientists have to be careful about this stuff, too. With that said, I'm not aware of any studies on the long-term safety of capacitive touch screens.
It's always possible that there's some harmful effect we haven't predicted, but the "standard response" that the amount of charge involved is very small makes a lot of sense. Rocks and water don't have anything to do with it. Rebecca Holmes Follow-Up Testing touch screens Q: Rebecca, Thanks for your response, it is appreciated. Yes, the scientific method is in general a very helpful tool of great value. Many times what was thought safe later turns out not to be; and the fact that there have been no studies that either you or I know if, at least looking into the impact of the use of touch screen technologies sends up a warning sign, for me.
Before, when I used to keep my cell phone in my front left pants pocket, the top of my left leg, just above the knee, started going numb. When I stopped putting the phone there, the numbness went away. The industry said for years that cell phones are safe, yet now more and more evidence is mounting to the contrary.
Laptops cause sperm count reduction in men. Industry tends to move things forward without testing things well enough, and without testing them in terms of systemic impact. I am an educator, among other things, and with years of studying pedagogy I have found that the best education tends to be a balance of three things: A balance of these three is best, in my view, yet we all too often focus on the first part, received knowledge.
Funding is given for some projects and some ideas, not others, which means certain info is generated and other info is not. Neil Postman writes about this as it relates to technology fairly well in his book Technopoly. And, as I mentioned before, there is also the very important question of systems thinking that is often overlooked.
Depression in high voltage power line workers
From the book Natural Capitalism: Many Dayak villagers had malaria, and the World Health Organization had a solution that was simple and direct. Spraying DDT seemed to work: Mosquitoes died, and malaria declined. But then an expanding web of side effects 'consequences you didn't think of,' quips biologist Garrett Hardin, 'the existence of which you will deny as long as possible' started to appear.
The roofs of people's houses began to collapse, because the DDT had also killed tiny parasitic wasps that had previously controlled thatch-eating caterpillars. The colonial government issued sheet-metal replacement roofs, but people couldn't sleep when tropical rains turned the tin roofs into drums.
Meanwhile, the DDT-poisoned bugs were being eaten by geckos, which were eaten by cats. The DDT invisibly built up in the food chain and began to kill the cats.
Without the cats, the rats multiplied. The World Health Organization, threatened by potential outbreaks of typhus and sylvatic plague, which it had itself created, was obliged to parachute fourteen thousand live cats into Borneo. Peace, Peter - Peter age 46 A: The reward scale can be subdivided into three subscales: The effort and reward scales are assessed through responses that vary in level of agreement or disagreement, with scores from 1 to 5. Thus, the effort scores in the scale with six items vary from 6 to The higher the score, the greater the effort made and the higher the perception of demands as stressors.
The reward scale varies from 11 to 55; the lower the score, the lower the perception of job rewards The overcommitment scale includes six items, with positive responses that vary from "completely disagree" to "completely agree", with scores between 1 and Items identify the difficulties in ignoring or avoiding work duties, and disproportionate impatience and irritability.
The higher the score, the greater the possibility of an individual experiencing overcommitment to work. The ERI was adequate to assess aspects of effort and reward imbalance at work in Brazilian contexts. Internal consistency, as assessed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient, was good for the three scales, varying from 0.
The structure of factors, obtained through factorial analysis, was consistent with the components of the theoretical model construct in both studies11, It measures the presence of current depressive symptoms, with an emphasis on the affective component and depressive mood The CES-D scale was designed from a set of items of previously validated depression scales.
The main components of depressive symptoms were obtained from the clinical literature, including depressive mood, feelings of guilt and low self-esteem, abandonment, hopelessness, psychomotor retardation, loss of appetite and sleep disorders. It is a self-applied instrument comprised of 20 items, which are related to depressive mood, behavior and perception The responses to each of these items were given according to the frequency with which each type of behavior or symptom was present in the week prior to questionnaire application.
The total score varies from zero to 60 and scores equal to or higher than 16 points are considered to be suggestive of depression It is a widely used instrument because of its easy application and wide acceptance26, The cut-off point adopted - two or more positive responses - defines alcohol abuse.
Data analysis Psychosocial work aspects were the main independent variable, comprised of the Effort-Reward Model dimensions overcommitment to work, effort, reward and effort-reward imbalance.
Initially, the distribution of scores of each scale with a descriptive purpose was analyzed. Next, the analysis of the association between the effort-reward model dimensions and depression was performed. The effort, reward and overcommitment scales were dichotomized for this analysis to form two groups in each dimension: The cut-off point used for this dichotomization was the mean value obtained in each scale.
The main predictive variable was the Effort-Reward Imbalance ratio, calculated as follows: Accessed on December 26th, Values close to zero indicate a favorable condition related to low effort and high reward and values higher than one indicate a greater effort made and lower reward received.
The score was used as a binary measure presence or absence of imbalancebased on the continuous variable with logarithmic transformationand the cut-off point was in the highest tertile. The ERI ratio was used as a dichotomous variable presence or absence of imbalancewith the cut-off point in the highest tertile, following the example of certain studies that used this type of stratification9. The response variable was determined by the presence of depressive symptoms, assessed by the CES-D scale.
The following covariables were analyzed as potential confounding variables: Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to analyze the association between the main independent variable dimensions and situation of Effort-Reward Imbalance analyzed in different models and the dependent variable Depressionadjusting for variables considered to be relevant.
Covariables were pre-selected individually, adopting the following as criteria: Logistic regression analysis was applied to the set of pre-selected variables and the final model was obtained according to the Wald test, with a p-value equal to or lower than 0. In the analysis of effect modification, the terms-products of the main exposure variable with the potentially changing variables were excluded one by one, provided that they showed a p-value higher than 0.
The Odds Ratios OR obtained from the logistic regression analyses were converted into Prevalence Ratios PR and their respective confidence intervals were estimated using the Delta method The previously described procedures of analysis of association between the model dimensions and depression were performed separately for each of the three scales effort, reward and overcommitment to work and for the effort-reward ratio.
Thus, researchers sought to obtain the best model for each dimension separately. All previously described covariables were tested for each model. Results Characteristics of the population studied All workers studied had a mean age of 45 years with a standard deviation sd of 8. The mean length of time working in the job was The most frequent work shift was the 8-hour shift, although With regard to task assignment, In terms of monthly income, Current or previous work of relatives parents or siblings in the company was reported by Alcohol use was reported by Alcohol abuse as measured by the CAGE questionnaire was found in Smoking was reported by Physical activity practice regular or not was reported by In terms of marital status, With regard to psychosocial factors associated with the situation causing occupational stress, as assessed by the ERI, The prevalence of depressive symptoms, as estimated by the CES-D, was Current use of anxiolytic drugs was reported by 3.
The highest prevalence of depression was found in workers with low reward In addition, depression was also found to be associated with high effort and high overcommitment to work, although not statistically significant, after adjusting for age and income Table 3.
The prevalence of depression was 3. Discussion There was an association between the effort-reward model dimensions and depression among workers of the equipment and transmission line maintenance sector of an electricity generation and transmission company of the states of Bahia and Sergipe. Low rewards and experiencing a situation of effort-reward imbalance maintained a statistical association with the occurrence of depression, even after adjustment for potential confounders selected in the final analysis model.
DC Circuit Theory: Voltage, Current, Resistance, Power & Ohms Law
The profile of the workers in this study revealed that this is a population with stable jobs who have worked for this electric power company for a long time. The fact that some workers have already provided services before being permanently employed and that close relatives have worked or still work for the company reveals the existence of a positive relationship between workers and the company.
On the other hand, the long length of time working in the same sector and job, which shows the lack of professional development throughout the years of work, may act as potential risk factors for mental health.
The prevalence of depressive symptoms observed in the workers studied National studies that adopted the CES-D scale are mainly aimed at elderly individuals and other population groups not suitable to be compared with the population of this study. The prevalence of the situation of effort-reward imbalance was high The presence of depressive symptoms was closely associated with low reward at work and the situation of effort-reward imbalance.
This result is similar to that observed in a study conducted with a general German population, which found a strong association between depression and the effort-reward imbalance, even when adjusted for several covariables8.
One limitation of the present study was its cross-sectional design, which prevented the assessment of cause-and-effect relationships between exposure to the risk ERI and outcome depressive symptomatologyas the measures of interest of exposure and effect are evaluated simultaneously, not enabling clear cause-and-effect relationships to be established.
In the present study, the occurrence of the healthy worker's effect is unlikely, as few cases were lost, due to depression being a rarely fatal chronic disease and to this population having stable jobs.
Nonetheless, the possibility of loss of information about workers who had retired, died from other diseases or left the company in a previous period should be taken into consideration. Data analysis was hindered by the small number of stratified groups, resulting in excessively wide confidence intervals that reduce the accuracy of estimates.
In addition, it should be emphasized that the instrument CES-D used to assess the prevalence of depression is not a means of diagnosis, although being widely used in epidemiological studies. However, it is possible that this instrument has under- or overestimated the effect, as its validation for the specific purposes of the present study was not performed. The studies that used the CES-D in populations of workers did not mention the validation of this instrument either.
The value of Alcohol abuse may reflect the workers' strategy to cope with depression, delaying the outcome. In this context, the actual prevalence of depression would be masked by alcoholism, reducing the possibility of its being identified by the cross-sectional design adopted in this study.