Social science - Wikipedia
International Economic History Conference, Helsinki 21–25 August , Session relation to ”Other”, non-historical disciplines. One of the foremost This would involve elements such as philosophical presuppositions, theoretical . Economics overall, fits best with philosophy, but the linkage is weak. .. tend to fall substantially for other disciplines such as law, history and. the Reliability of Economic Models: Essays in the Philosophy of Economics, cast We need to have a better history and sociology of the formation of the Sociologists like Robert Merton (link) and Andrew Abbott (Chaos of.
Interestingly, the subsistence patterns of many of the modern speakers of this family still emphasizes herding and fishing.
Nuerherding Maasai, Tedaor fishing Songhai Another technique is the study of loan words: The study of loan words among language groups has also helped to improve our knowledge of culture change and contact in the past. For example, there are several Kanuri loan words in the Hausa language.
Interdisciplinary Approach to Scholarship in History. This science through its human palaeontology Palaeo- Anthropolgy help in the study of pre-historic human and proto-human fossils, supported by genetic science a branch of biological science which help in genetic analysis, done through genetic and biological examination in tracing and ascertaining the trend of a family, group or society.
Psychology just like history is a multifaceted discipline and includes many sub-fields of study such areas as human development, sports, health, clinical, social behaviour and cognitive process Some aspects study the influence of culture and society and the analysis of role of evolution complements historical studies. Psychology is seen as one aspect of social situation explained in historical context.
Psychology complements history in analysing the motives and actions of man and societies. The role of psychology in historical writing of biography and auto-biography is unequivocal. The impact of psychology on history is evident from the fact that in the past, historians inquired primarily into the origins of war and ignored the result of war, and as a result of the influence of 15 S.
It is believed that history and geography have very close ties. Some scholars have opined that geography answers questions spanning the local to the global, in the past, present and future17 The eminent geographer Donald Meining views geography and history as complementary and necessarily connected in teaching and learning about the past and present, as exemplified in his work: The Shaping Of America: The importance of geographic knowledge to history are characterised by the abilities to; develop location skills and understandings, understand human and environmental interactions, understand human movement, and understand the region Geographic concepts and tools are beneficial to enhancing a multicultural perspective, especially in the study of migration and movement by a group having examined and interpreted the economic and cultural space of the migrants and host community.
The interaction of geography and history help understand historical events through the knowledge of physical and human characteristics of a specific space of occurrence. A Necessary Connection in the School Curriculum. Integrating History and Geography. Without a rudimentary knowledge of geography, it would be difficult to understand or study certain branches of history such as: Geography lies at the basis of History Herder opined that: History is Geography set in motion.
The physical formation of the country such as Britain, Japan and Greece with broken coastlines had a very powerful impact on its history; this facilitated their naval strength and empire building activities. The geographical discoveries of America and a new route to India determined the character of world history since the Renaissance Hence, the knowledge of geography helped a lot in the age of discovery and is very essential for historical reconstruction.
Anthropology been the study of the origins and development of people and their society enables historian to understand the cultural pattern and behaviour of primitive peoples belonging to different races.
Understanding Society: The disciplines of economics
In tracing the course of social and cultural revolutions of pre- historic and post-historic man, the knowledge of and the help of anthropology as a related discipline to history is cogent as it helps with precise assertions.
Relationship of History with other Sciences: Complex rituals, blood- feud, trance and ecstasy, millenarianism, oath-taking, the Divine Right of Kings, and particularly magical and witchcraft beliefs became legitimate and fruitful topics for study. In the last of these, for instance, models from African witchcraft provided a stimulus for many important works on English, French, Spanish, and North American and German witchcraft Also, Anthropological works also had the effect of distancing the familiar, making historians aware that much of what they had regarded as normal in the past really required investigation because it was, cross-comparatively, unusual.
A particularly striking example of this was in the field of family relationships.
Relationship of History with other Sciences | Study of History
Much of anthropology is concerned with kinship and marriage. These works helped to stimulate many of the studies of sexuality, marriage, childhood, parental ties, domestic groups, women, love, incest and other topics.
The anthropological inspiration joined up with interests from historical demography and women's studies, and thereby opened up the whole field of interpersonal relationships and sentiment Historical research into many other topics was stimulated by anthropological enquiries: The formal historical documents usually conceal such topics, so that it was largely under the pressure of anthropology that a vigorous development of the study of past mentality and emotional structures took place, exemplified in the work of historians such as E.
Le Roy Ladurie, E. Thompson and Keith Thomas Anthropology stresses the interdependence of spheres, the overlap of economics, politics, religion and kinship, which have superficially been separated in the modern industrial world. It proposes paradoxical and ingenious causes for unquestioned institutions. Anthropology has analysed the workings of three of the four major forms of human civilization, namely hunters and gatherers, tribal and peasant societies. The Blackwell Dictionary of Historians ed.
John Cannon et al. The renewed association of the two disciplines of history and anthropology has been mutually enriching. Both seek to interpret the basic patterns in societies, to contrast and compare in order to separate the universal from the particular, to explain both the single event and the broad institution Sociology is the study of human social relationships and institutions with diverse subject matter ranging from family to state, from crime to religion, from divisions of race and social class to the shared beliefs of a common culture, and from social stability to radical change in whole societies.
Sociology offers a distinctive and enlightening way of seeing and understanding the social world Sociology as a science of society tries to analyse human interactions and inter- relations with all their diversity and complexity, this concept to a large extent is sacrosanct to historical reconstruction even though they differ in regards to approach.
Sociology provides social background for the study of history as well as help history to develop the narrow areas of human activity. It is believed that in the evolution of man, economic sub- structure succeeds the cultural structure and precedes the political super structure. Thus, 24 Alan Macfarlane. Economic history is an important branch of history, its understanding is absolutely essential for proper understanding of history of any period.
Due to the complexity of study of economics, especially as it involves mathematics and statistics calculations of figures as factsdedicating time to acquire basic knowledge of economic theories for a historian to analyze historical cum economic events will be at the detriment of the study and writing of history, hence, the need arose for a historian to employ the use of existing economic tools, statistics and facts to help solve relevant economic problems in historical reconstruction.
A major example of the benefits of economic analysis in historical reconstruction is evident in Paul E. A History of Slavery in Africa, published inwhere he extensively employs the use of economic tools and word register to include statistics analysis in explaining how the Medieval slave trade and Atlantic slave trade from the 15th — early 20th centuries was carried out, indicating to a large extent figures that closely shows the number of victims of these trades and enslavement process.
Political science is the part of social science which treats the foundation of the state and principles of government. Sociologists like Robert Merton link and Andrew Abbott Chaos of Disciplines attempt to provide a micro-level account of the development and workings of a scientific discipline, using the empirical and theoretical tools of sociology. And this approach sheds a great deal of light on the way the particular field of science works, as well as providing greater granularity to the status of scientific claims within various disciplines.
But to date this hasn't been true of historians of the social sciences. Marion Fourcade's profoundly innovative book, Economists and Societies: Discipline and Profession in the United States, Britain, and France, s to stakes a sociologist's toolkit to work on the disciplines of economics.An introduction to the discipline of Economics
Here is a good statement of her fundamental thesis: But everywhere it was distinctive. If we look back just a few decades, we see that the institutionalization of economics expertise in science, policy, or business took different routes across nations. Scientific and practical knowledge about the economy was conceptualized and institutionalized in different ways in different places, and for identifiable reasons.
Here is a good example of an empirical approach a sociologist can take to this question. Fourcade cites opinion surveys that have been conducted of "professional economists" in seven European and North American countries, on topics relevant to economic theory and policy.
For most of these questions there are significant differences between U. Here are a couple of questions from table p. The regulatory question is particularly revealing.
So survey research -- a very basic tool of sociological research -- turns out to have useful and surprising results when directed at the profession of economics. Another tool that Fourcade uses to good advantage is something that Merton emphasized as well: How did specific influential individuals develop into professional economists?
And what can the sociologist learn about the profession from these detailed intellectual itineraries? Fourcade is careful and reflective in formulating the methodology she pursues in the book. She makes use of the comparative framework employed by comparative historical sociologists in other fields as well; she singles out the U. This is methodologically similar to Frank Dobbin's study of "policy cultures" in these same three countries; Forging Industrial Policy: She calls her approach "critical organized comparison" This approach defines the bulk of the book; Fourcade provides chapters on the economic cultures of professional economics in the U.