This paper aims to investigate the relationship between Maslow's hierarchy of Keywords: Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, Herzberg's Dual Factor Theory, Notice that the higher order self-actualization needs are served entirely by intrinsic. There's plenty of motivational theories around how and why people behave the become fully self-actualized because our society rewards motivation primarily Policy; Relationship with supervisors; Work conditions; Salary. Esteem needs: internal factors such as self-respect, autonomy, achievement and . Maslow vs Herzberg Theory of Motivation Difference between Maslow and.
Comparison of Maslow and Herzberg Theory of Motivation
Therefore, employers have ignored what individuals say that they want, instead telling employees what they want, based on what managers believe most people want under the circumstances. Frequently, these decisions have been based on Maslow's needs hierarchy, including the factor of prepotency. As a person advances through an organization, his employer supplies or provides opportunities to satisfy needs higher on Maslow's pyramid.
They cite earlier research by Tutor with Tennessee Career Ladder Program as a means of overcoming both those problems. Bellott and Tutor believe that the data from the study clearly indicate that the Level I participants were as influenced by motivation factors as by hygiene factors, contrary to Herzberg's position that hygiene factors do not motivate.
The survey asked classroom teachers, "To what extent did salary influence your decision to participate in the TCLP program? The results for the four highest-average items, shown in Table 3, indicate that at all three levels teachers viewed salary as a strong motivating factor, easily the most important of 11 of Herzberg's hygiene factors on the survey. On Herzberg's five motivation factors, achievement ranked as the most important one.
However, the overall conclusion drawn from the research is that salary was the single most important influence on the teachers' decisions to participate in TCLP, regardless of level in the organization.
The teachers perceived the amount of salary increase to be tied to achievement and the other motivation factors. These results are summarized in Table 4. Therefore, it can be concluded that self-actualization is a prepotent need for esteem.
Two reasons seem to account for this. If you perform well, you will get reward. In this case the question is that: If one day I get a good grade and another day I get a bad grade for the same performance, then the motivation will decrease.
Vroom supposes that expectancy, instrumentality and valence are multiplied together to determine motivation.
This means that if any of these is zero, then the motivation to do something will be zero as well. Vroom's expectancy theory Source: For example if I think: The expectancy theory highlights individual differences in motivation and contains three useful factors for understanding and increasing motivation.
Adams' equity theory The equity theory states that people are motivated if they are treated equitably, and receive what they consider fair for their effort and costs. The theory was suggested by Adams and is based on Social Exchange theory.
Difference Between Maslow and Herzberg’s Theories of Motivation
According to this theory, people compare their contribution to work, costs of their actions and the benefits that will result to the contribution and benefits of the reference person. If people perceive that the ratio of their inputs-outputs to the ratio of referent other's input-output is inequitable, then they will be motivated to reduce the inequity Figure 5.
Adams' equity theory Source: Author's own figure At the workplace the workers put inputs into the job, such as education, experience, effort, energy, and expect to get some outcomes such as salary, reward, promotion, verbal recognition, and interesting and challenging work each in equal amounts Figure 6. Examples for the inputs and outcomes in the equity theory Source: Author's own figure The equity theory works not just in the workplace, but at school as well.
For example, when for the same oral exam performance two students get different marks, then inequity exists. At the school it can demotivate students if someone who never studies or who never performs better than the others always gets good mark. The greater the inequity the greater the distress an individual feels, which will motivate the endeavour to make the outcomes and the inputs equal compared to the reference person.
The problem with equity theory is that it does not take into account differences in individual needs, values, and personalities. For example, one person may perceive a certain situation as inequitable while another does not.
Motivation according to Jaja is the result of the interaction of the individual and the situation.
A motive or drive is a need that is sufficiently pressing to drive a person to act in a goal directed manner. Motivation can also be seen as a driving force that initiates and directs behavior. We can also say that it is a temporal or dynamic state within a person which is not concerned with his or her personality. However, we would be comparing in this work, motivational theories of Maslow, Herzberg and McClelland with a quest to understanding their own view as well as see the similarities criticisms as well as differences between these theories.
At the least was the physiological needs and the highest was the self-actualization. According to BaridamMaslow based his theory of human motivation on the following assumptions: Individuals have certain needs that influence their behavior, only unsatisfied needs can influence behavior, satisfied needs do not act as motivators.
Needs are arranged in an order of importance or hierarchy from the basic physiological to the complex self- actualization needs, 3. Maslow hypothesized that within every human being, there exists a hierarchy of five needs which are: It includes growth, achieving ones potential and self-fulfillment. As each of the needs becomes substantially satisfied, the next stage becomes dominant Robbins et al A more realistic description of the hierarchy would be in terms of decreasing percentages of satisfaction as potency increases.
Also, the assumption that only one level of need is operational at any point in time is challenged. Maslow viewed human needs as being static whereas in reality these needs are dynamic.
Finally, the theory indicates that a satisfied need is not a motivator. But it is true that individual needs are never fully or permanently satisfied Baridam This research undertaken by Herzberg in the s where he interviewed engineers, accountants and managers at Pittsburgh, United states of America because of their growing importance in the business world.
This research has broadened the understanding of motivating factors and job satisfaction in the work place. From his research, he concluded that employees have two set of needs in the work place.
He described them as Hygiene factors and Motivator factors. Hygiene factors satisfiers include salary, working condition and fringe benefits. He also stated that these factors on their own do not lead to job satisfaction but their absence can create dissatisfaction. Herzberg found that a combination of these factors increased motivation and improved individual performance.
The critical incident technique he used by asking people to look at themselves retrospectively does not substantially provide a vehicle for expression of other factors to be mentioned. This methodology may cause people to recall only the most recent experiences.
Satisfaction may not be directly related to job performance. While some are motivated by job context variables, others find favor in job content factors depending on his particular circumstance.
He identified five sets of human needs on priority basis and their satisfaction in motivating employees while Herzberg refers to hygiene factors and motivating factors in his theory.
Comparison of Maslow and Herzberg Theory of Motivation
Hygiene factors are dissatisfiers while motivating factors motivate subordinate. Hierarchical arrangement of need is not given.Motivation Theories, Maslow's hierarchy, Herzberg two factor theory and McGregor theory X and Y.
It suggests the motivating factors which can be used effectively. The theory is based on actual information collected by Herzberg after interviewing engineers and accountants.
It is mostly applicable to poor and developing countries where money is still a big motivating factor. It is on the other hand applicable to rich and developed countries where money is less important motivating factor. Jaja McClelland stated that we all have these three types of motivation regardless of age, sex, race or culture. The type of motivation that each individual is driven by is changed by life experiences and the opinion of their culture.