Conformity - Wikipedia
Conformity is the act of matching attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors to group norms. Norms are .. His conformity estimates were 56% in Norway and 46% in France, suggesting that individuals conformed slightly less when the task was linked to. Social influence occurs when a person's emotions, opinions or behaviors are affected by others Identification is the changing of attitudes or behaviors due to the influence of someone who is admired. phenomenon. According to Kelman, the desired relationship that the identifier relates to the behavior or attitude change. After the Liberation of France, he became a professor at the University of Bordeaux in as "the attempt to affect the personalities and to control the behavior of .. All of this describes the "Mass-Government" relationship characterized by.
Between these extremes, more complex "schedules of reinforcement" specify the rules that determine how and when a response will be followed by a reinforcer. Specific schedules of reinforcement reliably induce specific patterns of response, irrespective of the species being investigated including humans in some conditions.
However, the quantitative properties of behavior under a given schedule depend on the parameters of the schedule, and sometimes on other, non-schedule factors.
The orderliness and predictability of behavior under schedules of reinforcement was evidence for B. Skinner 's claim that by using operant conditioning he could obtain "control over behavior", in a way that rendered the theoretical disputes of contemporary comparative psychology obsolete. The reliability of schedule control supported the idea that a radical behaviorist experimental analysis of behavior could be the foundation for a psychology that did not refer to mental or cognitive processes.
The reliability of schedules also led to the development of applied behavior analysis as a means of controlling or altering behavior. Many of the simpler possibilities, and some of the more complex ones, were investigated at great length by Skinner using pigeonsbut new schedules continue to be defined and investigated.
Simple schedules[ edit ] A chart demonstrating the different response rate of the four simple schedules of reinforcement, each hatch mark designates a reinforcer being given Ratio schedule — the reinforcement depends only on the number of responses the organism has performed.
Continuous reinforcement CRF — a schedule of reinforcement in which every occurrence of the instrumental response desired response is followed by the reinforcer. Simple schedules have a single rule to determine when a single type of reinforcer is delivered for a specific response. Fixed ratio FR — schedules deliver reinforcement after every nth response. Variable ratio schedule VR — reinforced on average every nth response, but not always on the nth response.
Fixed interval FI — reinforced after n amount of time. Variable interval VI — reinforced on an average of n amount of time, but not always exactly n amount of time. Reinforcement is delivered on the average after 4 minutes. Fixed time FT — Provides a reinforcing stimulus at a fixed time since the last reinforcement delivery, regardless of whether the subject has responded or not.
In other words, it is a non-contingent schedule. Simple schedules are utilized in many differential reinforcement  procedures: Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior DRA - A conditioning procedure in which an undesired response is decreased by placing it on extinction or, less commonly, providing contingent punishment, while simultaneously providing reinforcement contingent on a desirable response.
An example would be a teacher attending to a student only when they raise their hand, while ignoring the student when he or she calls out. Differential reinforcement of other behavior DRO — Also known as omission training procedures, an instrumental conditioning procedure in which a positive reinforcer is periodically delivered only if the participant does something other than the target response.
An example would be reinforcing any hand action other than nose picking. An example would be reinforcing clapping to reduce nose picking Differential reinforcement of low response rate DRL — Used to encourage low rates of responding. It is like an interval schedule, except that premature responses reset the time required between behavior. If you ask more often, I will give you none. It is like an interval schedule, except that a minimum number of responses are required in the interval in order to receive reinforcement.
Ratio schedules produce higher rates of responding than interval schedules, when the rates of reinforcement are otherwise similar.
Variable schedules produce higher rates and greater resistance to extinction than most fixed schedules. The variable ratio schedule produces both the highest rate of responding and the greatest resistance to extinction for example, the behavior of gamblers at slot machines.
Fixed schedules produce "post-reinforcement pauses" PRPwhere responses will briefly cease immediately following reinforcement, though the pause is a function of the upcoming response requirement rather than the prior reinforcement. Organisms whose schedules of reinforcement are "thinned" that is, requiring more responses or a greater wait before reinforcement may experience "ratio strain" if thinned too quickly. This produces behavior similar to that seen during extinction.
Usually higher ratio requirement causes longer post-reinforcement pauses to occur. Partial reinforcement schedules are more resistant to extinction than continuous reinforcement schedules.
Ratio schedules are more resistant than interval schedules and variable schedules more resistant than fixed ones. Momentary changes in reinforcement value lead to dynamic changes in behavior.
There are many possibilities; among those most often used are: Alternative schedules — A type of compound schedule where two or more simple schedules are in effect and whichever schedule is completed first results in reinforcement. Multiple schedules — Two or more schedules alternate over time, with a stimulus indicating which is in force. Reinforcement is delivered if the response requirement is met while a schedule is in effect.
FR4 when given a whistle and FI6 when given a bell ring. Mixed schedules — Either of two, or more, schedules may occur with no stimulus indicating which is in force.
FI6 and then VR3 without any stimulus warning of the change in schedule. Concurrent schedules — A complex reinforcement procedure in which the participant can choose any one of two or more simple reinforcement schedules that are available simultaneously.
Organisms are free to change back and forth between the response alternatives at any time. Concurrent-chain schedule of reinforcement — A complex reinforcement procedure in which the participant is permitted to choose during the first link which of several simple reinforcement schedules will be in effect in the second link.
Once a choice has been made, the rejected alternatives become unavailable until the start of the next trial. Interlocking schedules — A single schedule with two components where progress in one component affects progress in the other component.
In an interlocking FR 60 FI s schedule, for example, each response subtracts time from the interval component such that each response is "equal" to removing two seconds from the FI schedule. Chained schedules — Reinforcement occurs after two or more successive schedules have been completed, with a stimulus indicating when one schedule has been completed and the next has started Example: On an FR 10 schedule in the presence a red light, a pigeon pecks a green disc 10 times; then, a yellow light indicates an FR 3 schedule is active; after the pigeon pecks a yellow disc 3 times, a green light to indicates a VI 6-s schedule is in effect; if this were the final schedule in the chain, the pigeon would be reinforced for pecking a green disc on a VI 6-s schedule; however, all schedule requirements in the chain must be met before a reinforcer is provided.
Tandem schedules — Reinforcement occurs when two or more successive schedule requirements have been completed, with no stimulus indicating when a schedule has been completed and the next has started. VR 10, after it is completed the schedule is changed without warning to FR 10, after that it is changed without warning to FR 16, etc. At the end of the series of schedules, a reinforcer is finally given.
Higher-order schedules — completion of one schedule is reinforced according to a second schedule; e. Superimposed schedules[ edit ] The psychology term superimposed schedules of reinforcement refers to a structure of rewards where two or more simple schedules of reinforcement operate simultaneously. Reinforcers can be positive, negative, or both.
An example is a person who comes home after a long day at work. The behavior of opening the front door is rewarded by a big kiss on the lips by the person's spouse and a rip in the pants from the family dog jumping enthusiastically. Another example of superimposed schedules of reinforcement is a pigeon in an experimental cage pecking at a button.
The pecks deliver a hopper of grain every 20th peck, and access to water after every pecks. Superimposed schedules of reinforcement are a type of compound schedule that evolved from the initial work on simple schedules of reinforcement by B.
Russell H. Fazio - Wikipedia
Skinner and his colleagues Skinner and Ferster, They demonstrated that reinforcers could be delivered on schedules, and further that organisms behaved differently under different schedules. Rather than a reinforcer, such as food or water, being delivered every time as a consequence of some behavior, a reinforcer could be delivered after more than one instance of the behavior. For example, a pigeon may be required to peck a button switch ten times before food appears.
This is a "ratio schedule". Also, a reinforcer could be delivered after an interval of time passed following a target behavior. An example is a rat that is given a food pellet immediately following the first response that occurs after two minutes has elapsed since the last lever press.
This is called an "interval schedule". In addition, ratio schedules can deliver reinforcement following fixed or variable number of behaviors by the individual organism. Likewise, interval schedules can deliver reinforcement following fixed or variable intervals of time following a single response by the organism. Individual behaviors tend to generate response rates that differ based upon how the reinforcement schedule is created. Much subsequent research in many labs examined the effects on behaviors of scheduling reinforcers.
If an organism is offered the opportunity to choose between or among two or more simple schedules of reinforcement at the same time, the reinforcement structure is called a "concurrent schedule of reinforcement". Brechnerintroduced the concept of superimposed schedules of reinforcement in an attempt to create a laboratory analogy of social trapssuch as when humans overharvest their fisheries or tear down their rainforests.
Brechner created a situation where simple reinforcement schedules were superimposed upon each other. In other words, a single response or group of responses by an organism led to multiple consequences. Concurrent schedules of reinforcement can be thought of as "or" schedules, and superimposed schedules of reinforcement can be thought of as "and" schedules.
Brechner and Linder and Brechner expanded the concept to describe how superimposed schedules and the social trap analogy could be used to analyze the way energy flows through systems.
Superimposed schedules of reinforcement have many real-world applications in addition to generating social traps. Many different human individual and social situations can be created by superimposing simple reinforcement schedules. For example, a human being could have simultaneous tobacco and alcohol addictions. Even more complex situations can be created or simulated by superimposing two or more concurrent schedules.
For example, a high school senior could have a choice between going to Stanford University or UCLA, and at the same time have the choice of going into the Army or the Air Force, and simultaneously the choice of taking a job with an internet company or a job with a software company. That is a reinforcement structure of three superimposed concurrent schedules of reinforcement.
Superimposed schedules of reinforcement can create the three classic conflict situations approach—approach conflict, approach—avoidance conflictand avoidance—avoidance conflict described by Kurt Lewin and can operationalize other Lewinian situations analyzed by his force field analysis.
Other examples of the use of superimposed schedules of reinforcement as an analytical tool are its application to the contingencies of rent control Brechner, and problem of toxic waste dumping in the Los Angeles County storm drain system Brechner, Concurrent schedules[ edit ] In operant conditioningconcurrent schedules of reinforcement are schedules of reinforcement that are simultaneously available to an animal subject or human participant, so that the subject or participant can respond on either schedule.
For example, in a two-alternative forced choice task, a pigeon in a Skinner box is faced with two pecking keys; pecking responses can be made on either, and food reinforcement might follow a peck on either. The schedules of reinforcement arranged for pecks on the two keys can be different.
Opportunism - Wikipedia
They may be independent, or they may be linked so that behavior on one key affects the likelihood of reinforcement on the other. It is not necessary for responses on the two schedules to be physically distinct.
In an alternate way of arranging concurrent schedules, introduced by Findley inboth schedules are arranged on a single key or other response device, and the subject can respond on a second key to change between the schedules. In such a "Findley concurrent" procedure, a stimulus e. Concurrent schedules often induce rapid alternation between the keys. To prevent this, a "changeover delay" is commonly introduced: When both the concurrent schedules are variable intervalsa quantitative relationship known as the matching law is found between relative response rates in the two schedules and the relative reinforcement rates they deliver; this was first observed by R.
Animals and humans have a tendency to prefer choice in schedules. Shaping psychology Shaping is reinforcement of successive approximations to a desired instrumental response. In training a rat to press a lever, for example, simply turning toward the lever is reinforced at first. Then, only turning and stepping toward it is reinforced. The outcomes of one set of behaviours starts the shaping process for the next set of behaviours, and the outcomes of that set prepares the shaping process for the next set, and so on.
As training progresses, the response reinforced becomes progressively more like the desired behavior; each subsequent behaviour becomes a closer approximation of the final behaviour. It can also be viewed as a striving to realize or express certain principles.
However, the moral dilemma implied by opportunism concerns the conflict of self-interest with the interests of others, or with following a principle: Thus, substantively, opportunism refers to someone who acts on opportunities in a self-interested, biased or one-sided manner that conflicts or contrasts in some way with one or more general rule, law, norm, or principle.Behavior influences attitude - Behavior - MCAT - Khan Academy
The fact that the self-interested action evokes this conflict, often implies that the tendency to use opportunities to advantage is excessive or improper, the corollary being a deficiency of character or at least a lack of propriety. Hence the term opportunism often has the pejorative connotation of morally unsound behaviour, or behaviour that sacrifices a greater good for the sake of gaining an advantage for oneself or one's own group.
Moralists may have a distaste for opportunism, insofar as opportunism implies the violation of a moral principle. It is often difficult for an outsider to understand why an action or an idea is or is not "opportunist", because the outsider does not know the whole story, or the whole context, or the true intention behind it.
The way things appear can give an impression which is quite different from the real motivation that is behind it. Human behaviour[ edit ] In human behaviour generally, opportunism concerns the relationship between what people do, and their basic principles when faced with opportunities and challenges.
The opportunist seeks to gain personal advantage when an opportunity presents itself, putting self-interest ahead of some other interest, in a way contrary either to a previously established principle or another principle that ought to have higher priority.
Hence opportunist behaviour is usually regarded at least as questionable or dubious, and at most as unjustifiable or completely illegitimate.
Opportunism is regarded as unhealthy, as a disorder or as a character deficiency, if selfishly pursuing an opportunity is blatantly anti-social involves disregard for the needs, wishes and interests of others. However, behaviour can also be regarded as "opportunist" by scholars without any particular moral evaluation being made or implied simply as a type of self-interested behaviour.
The sociology and psychology of human opportunism is somewhat related to the study of gambling behaviour, and centres on the way people respond to risk and opportunity, and what kind of motivation and organizational culture is involved.
Both the element of risk and opportunity play a role. To be opportunist in behaviour, a person or group must: Thus, the opportunity exploited for selfish ends can itself exist either because an action is taken, or because of deliberate inaction when action should really have been taken.
The propensity to engage in such kinds of behaviours depends a great deal on the presence of absence of personal characteristics such as integritymoral characterpersonal insight or self-awarenesspersonal flexibility and balance.
It also depends on the ability to judge the consequences of different courses of action correctly. Strong emotions and desires may also play a role, and much may depend on how permissive a person, group or organization is see permissive society. These factors influence the capacity to know "where to draw the line" appropriately, and regulate one's own behaviour so that it remains consistent.
Much also depends on the beliefs people happen to have about themselves and the world they live in, and on the morale of an organization. Whatever the opportunist's exact motive, it always involves the element of selfishness.
Psychologically, it follows that opportunism always assumes a basic ability to make one's own choices, and decide to act in a way that serves one's own interest.
In turn, that presupposes at least some basic self-motivation, inner direction, inventiveness and behavioural freedom; subjectively, an opportunist must at least be able to recognize and respond to opportunities when they are there. Eight main contexts[ edit ] Personalities and beliefs are shaped by the specific environment where they form.
It is likely that the possibilities for opportunist behaviour are promoted in contexts where there is not only an incentive to engage in them, but also where it is also extremely difficult for some reason to remain behaviourally consistent, or where ordinary constraints on behaviour are lacking.
In that case, opportunist behaviour does not seem to have much adverse effect or consequence, at least in the short term, compared to the much greater benefits of engaging in it. Eight main contexts are referred to in the literature: If there are only weak sanctions against unprincipled behaviour, this creates a setting where opportunist behaviour can flourish, and if the positions of people are very unequal in terms of power, wealth, status, knowledge or strength the possibility exists that some will take advantage of the disadvantage of others.
Opportunism is facilitated if the situation permits an actor to appropriate the gains or advantages to be had from an activity to themselves, while shifting the costs, blame and disadvantages to others. This may be regarded as unfair competition. The propensity of opportunist behaviour is influenced by the general life-situations that people find themselves in.
If one's own position is strong and secure, it may be much easier to be an opportunist — because if it would result in losses and failures, those losses and failures can be easily sustained given the resources available. Conversely, a person's existence may be so precarious, that he has "nothing to lose" by seizing any opportunity available to benefit himself.
Opportunist behaviour can be self-reinforcing: Examples might be a gold rush and the tragedy of the commons. In this case, opportunist behaviour may be facilitated, especially if precise rules for how a resource should be distributed are lacking, or if it is unclear who really owns it, or if proper use cannot be enforced.
This could be due to deliberate disinformation. Self-interest may be followed because it is unclear or undecided what other interests are at stake, or because a shared morality is lacking. If the situation is one where shared rules are lacking, where it is quite uncertain what the relevant rule to apply is, or where everything is very uncertain or chaotic, plenty of scope exists for opportunist behaviour.
Ordinary laws and "rules of the game" break down, creating new opportunities for those positioned to take advantage of them.
Opportunism is facilitated if for any reason there is a low level of awareness that it is happening. Perceptions of the strengths and vulnerabilities of others and oneself may play an important role. That motivation can promote the urge to win something "by any means necessary", even if it means to "cut corners" and do things not consistent with relevant principles.
If people are for some reason motivated "to do anything at all to achieve success", they are more likely to engage in opportunist behaviour for that very reason. Five main organizational influences[ edit ] Opportunist behaviour is also strongly influenced by the organizational context in which it occurs. Other organizations may be so loosely structured and so lacking in controls and sanctions regulating behaviour, that opportunism becomes almost unavoidable.
Lacking such a principled foundation, the organization may find itself constantly trying to compensate for both opportunist errors and factional errors. Sometimes expectations of behaviour are made explicit by the organization with the aid of formal rules communicated to members. Sometimes they are only implicit and informal - possibly because formal rules are not easy to formulate, or to enforce, or because it is assumed that members understand and share relevant norms and values.
If for example the organization sets itself the task to exploit risks and opportunities to advantage, then no matter what its size is, it tends to facilitate opportunist behaviour. If, on the other hand, the aim of the organization is to carefully conserve a state of affairs or belief system, this is much less likely to attract opportunists.
Use of the term in specific areas[ edit ] Professional[ edit ] In professional ethicsthe concept of opportunism plays a role in defining criteria for professional integrity. Professionals may, to a great extent, make their own judgements, interpretations, and decisions about the exact approach to take—without an explicit rule that they must perform in a specific way.
Such a situation can be exploited with opportunist motives that are contrary to the stated ethics of a profession. Consequently, it becomes necessary—for the sake of preserving professional integrity—to explicate "guiding norms" that define the boundaries of acceptable practice, or to divide up roles in such a way that different people in an organization can effectively check and control what their colleagues actually do "to keep them honest".
Intellectual opportunism The term intellectual opportunism—the pursuit of intellectual opportunities with a selfish, ulterior motive not consistent with relevant principles—refers to certain self-serving tendencies of the human intellect, often involving professional producers and disseminators of ideas, who work with idea-formation all the time.
The phenomenon of intellectual opportunism is frequently associated by its critics with careerism. When human knowledge becomes a tradeable good in a market of ideas, all sorts of opportunities arise for huckstering, swindling, haggling and hustling with information in ways which are regarded as unprincipled, dubious or involve deceit of some sort.
Normally this assumes some degree of intellectual flexibility, agility or persuasiveness. Sexual opportunism Sexual opportunism is the selfish pursuit of sexual opportunities for their own sake when they arise, often with the negative moral connotation that in some way it "takes advantage" of others, or "makes use" of, or "exploits", other persons for sexual purposes.
Sexual opportunism is sometimes also defined as the use of sexual favours for selfish purposes quite unrelated to the sexual activity, in which case taking a sexual opportunity is merely the means to achieve a quite different purpose, for example to advance one's career or obtain status or money. To the extent that the feelings, wishes, intentions, purposes, interests or norms of others are not adequately considered in the pursuit of sexual gratification, it then conflicts with some or other principle for appropriate behaviour, and it may involve deceit or dishonesty for example, the deliberate exploitation of sexual innocence.
In a clinical or scientific sense, sexual opportunism is often straightforwardly described as observable sexual promiscuity or the observable propensity to engage in casual sexwhatever the motive. Evolutionary[ edit ] In the theory of evolution"evolutionary opportunism" refers to a specific pattern of development in the history of a species.
The behaviour, culture or body part of a species that long ago evolved to serve a particular purpose or function may subsequently lend itself to a very different positive purpose or function that helps the species to survive. It turns out to have new advantages or potential benefits the species previously never used—and, therefore, the species retains an adaptation even if the original purpose it served is long gone.
Biological[ edit ] In biologyan opportunist organism is generally defined as a species that can live and thrive in variable environmental conditions, and sustain itself from a number of different food sources, or can rapidly take advantage of favorable conditions when they arise, because the species is behaviorally sufficiently flexible.
Such species can for example postpone reproduction, or stay dormant, until conditions make growth and reproduction possible. In the biological disciplines, opportunistic behavior is studied in fields such as evolutionary biologyecologyepidemiologyand etiologywhere moral or judgmental overtones do not apply see also opportunistic pathogensopportunistic predationphoresisand parasitism. In microbiologyopportunism refers to the ability of a normally non-pathogenic microorganism to act as a pathogen in certain circumstances.
Opportunist micro-organisms such as bacteriavirusesfungiand protozoa are ones that, when they invade the host organism, can cause infection in the host organism, but cause real disease only if the natural defenses, resistance or immune system of the host organism are lowered see opportunistic infection. In macrobiologyopportunist behaviour by an organism generally means that it is able to seize and use diverse opportunities in its environment to survive and grow.
If one single opportunity or need occurs, the organism can "improvise" a response to it with whatever resources it has available, even if what it can do is not the best possible strategy. Some animals also show this behavior for group-foraging.
In other words, they try to optimize the feeding intake of their colony. The Australian stingless bee Tetragonula carbonariafor instance, has several workers search for an area full of rich resources, and will then recruit heavily in this area until the resources are depleted.
Political opportunism The term "opportunism" is often used in politics and political scienceand by activists campaigning for a cause. Political opportunism is interpreted in different ways, but usually refers to one or more of the following: The term "political opportunism" is often used in a pejorative sense, mainly because it connotes the abandonment of principles or compromising political goals.
There are four main sources of political opportunism: Economic opportunism There exists no agreed general, scientific definition or theory of economic opportunism; the literature usually considers only specific cases and contexts. Market trade supplies no universal morality of its own, except the law of contract and basic practical requirements to settle transactions, while at the same time legal rules, however precise in their formulation, cannot control every detail of transactions and the interpretation or implications thereof.
Since economic opportunism must be assessed against some relevant norm or principle, controversy about what that norm or principle should be, makes a general definition difficult.
Nevertheless, the gains or benefits of trading activity and indeed the lossesalthough entirely legal, might be distributed very unequally or in ways not anticipated by previous understandings, and thus accusations of "economic opportunism" can arise nevertheless in many different settings.
Greed is frequently mentioned as a primary motive for economic opportunism. Parker  claims that the five most discussed examples of economic' opportunism are: In transaction cost economicsopportunism means self-interest seeking with guile, involving some kind of deliberate deceit and the absence of moral restraint.