Species–area relationship - Wikipedia
FIGURE 1 A good example of the species–area relationship is the num- ber of land .. ous: A single large reserve will have a lower per-species. tallies of the richness of each of a set of islands from a single latter, classic type of SAR as island species–area relationships standard error of the mean (± SE) and whiskers represent 95% conﬁdence intervals of means. SPECIES-AREA RELATIONSHIPS. Introduction: The relationship between island area and number of species is well known: larger islands contain more species.
There are many applications of the SAR: Nested sampling areas are spatially organised so that each smaller area is completely contained within the next area, larger than the previous.
The equilibrium theory of island biogeography was proposed by MacArthur and Wilson in to explain species richness of oceanic islands, and also applies to other isolates. We see that one of Gleason's data sets is power law, contrary to his claims. The unbroken species—area curve is fitted with log S and the dashed line with untransformed S.
From Preston's original bird data set. References Arrhenius O Species and area.
Journal of Ecology 9: Arrhenius O On the relation between species and area — a reply. Darlington PJ Zoogeography: The Geographical Distribution of Animals.
A review and empirical evaluation. The subject later gained popularity among animal ecologists with the seminal work of Preston on species abundance distributions and with Robert MacArthur and Edward O.Species-Area Relationships
An excellent historical review is provided in McGuinnesswhich connects debates over the form and function of species-area relationships with emerging ecological theory. Connor and McCoy also reviews the evidence linking species-area relationships to biological and ecological explanations, but the authors focus on the statistical validity of attempts to use the form and parameters of species-area curves to discern ecological causality.
Rosenzweig explores in detail several examples of species-area curves and uses them to discuss the many factors that influence the shape of these curves, while Drakare, et al. Because of the variety of research goals inherent in studies of species-area relationships, sampling and analytical methods, as well as definitions of what constitutes a species-area relationship, often vary among studies.
Scheiner defines six types of species-area curves that differ in the spatial arrangement of samples, whether larger samples are constructed in a spatially explicit fashion from adjacent smaller samples, and whether means or single values are used for a given spatial scale.
The statistics and biology of the species-area relationship.
Which function describes the species-area relationship best? A review and empirical evaluation.
Journal of Biogeography Their data are plotted below, using the log10 of the area and species number. The two data points furthest to the right represent, from left to right, South Florida the area south of Lake Okeechobee and the entire state of Florida.
All other data points are from the Keys. We can also plot the log10 of species number against the log10 of the distance of the islands from the Florida mainland. The relationship between the log10 of the species number and the log10 of island area clearly shows an increasing trend, and is well-approximated by the linear form of the model.
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Similarly, a decreasing trend of species number with island distance can be seen from the second graph. Whether or not the number of species is at equilibrium is less clear; interpretation of the data regarding this question is made more difficult by uncertainty about the history of sea-level changes over the past 10, years.
Both island size and distance from the mainland are associated with the number of species present.